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The,, .. 

A National Program of 
Health Instruction in Schools 

Manual for Teachers, 
Superintendents and Health Workers 

Fifth Edition. Copyright 1922 

Published by the 


370 Seventh Avenue, New York 


Montgomery, Ala. 

New York City 

New York City 

New York City 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Bismarck. N. D. 

Baltimore, Md. 

Cleveland, O. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

New York City 

Denver, Colo. 

Olympia, Wash. 

Topeka, Kansas 

Washington, D. C. 

Raleigh, N. C 

Boise, Idaho 

Boston, Mass. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Harrisburg, Pa. 


Washington, D. C. 

New York City 

Chicago, 111. 

New York City 

Boston, Mass. 

Augusta, Maine 

New Haven, Conn. 

Chicago, 111. 

New York City 

Boston, Mass. 

MR. C. M. DeFOREST, Secretary 
New York City 

(latJle of Contetitsi 



Brief Explanation 

(Requirements. Performance of 
Chores. Recording Performance. 
Award of Titles. Roll of Health 
Knighthood. Insignia. School 
Credits. Time Required. Sources 
of Supplies. Crusade Material. 
How to Start. Weight and Nu- 
trition. Tournaments. Aids to 
Health Training.) 
Principles and Pedagogy 
Adopted as a Curriculum Course 

Aid to Hygiene — Coordination — 

General Crusade Course 

7. How to Become Crusaders 

8. Membership 

9. The Chores 

Nutrition Course 

10. Nutrition Chores 

11. Weighing and Physical Examination 

12. Nutrition Chore Record. A Weight 


Crusade Supplies 

13. Costs and Financing 

14. List of Supplies 

Keep Well Guide for Every Day 

Introductory Course 

15. Crusaders' Code 

16. Kindergarten 

17. First and Second Grades 

18. Supplementary Devices 

19. Stories and Songs 

20. Games and Drills 

Aids to General, Nutrition and Intro- 
ductory Courses 

21. School Aid in Practice of Hygiene 

22. Prompting and Inspecting 

23. Symptoms of Illness 

24. List of Symptoms 

25. Window, Thermometer and Sani- 

tary Inspectors 

26. Setting-L^p Exercises : Two-minute 


27. Toothbrush Drill 

28. Handkerchief Drill 

29. Tournaments 

30. Inter-State and Inter-City Contests 

31. Roll of Health Knighthood 

32. Community Contests 
Z2>. Knighting Crusaders 

34. Accolade 

35. Costumes 

36. Health Books 

Advanced Course 

Z1. The Round Table of the Modern 
Health Crusade 

38. Qualifications for Seats 

39. Tests 

40. Reports 

41. Hygiene Course 

42. Athletic Tests 

43. Correct Weight 

44. Correct Posture 

45. Physical Examination 

46. Knowledge of First Aid 

47. Swimming and Life-Saving Skill 

48. Scout and Camp Fire Activities 

49. Community Sanitation Work 

50. Accolade of the Round Table 

Aids to All Crusade Courses 

51. Entertainments 

52. Schedule of Meetings 

53. Playlets and Pageants 

54. Miniature Theatre 

55. Motion Picture Films 

56. Exhibits 

57. Songs 

58. Poster Contests 

Health Clubs 

59. Health Crusade Clubs 

60. Club Activities 

61. Community Work 


62. Handbook for Teaching Hygiene 

63. Moral Effect of the Crusade 

64. Bibliography 

Back Cover 
The Crusader's Creed 
State Distributors for the Crusade 

518b . > fj 

VLiit ilotrern ilealtf) Crusiabe Course in ?|psiene 

1. Brief Explanation 

This first section of the manual, pages 4 to 7, is a condensed statement 
of the Crusade system. It is also published separately as a "Brief Explana- 
tion for Teachers." The subsequent sections of the manual explain further 
the subjects in Section 1 and set forth additional activities and information. 
All activities beyond the requirements defined in Section 1 are optional. They 
are recommended as a means of increasing interest and benefit. 

The Modern Health Crusade is a system of training in good health 
habits. Its basis is practice and not mere precept. Under it children do the 
duties explained in hygiene and physiology but too often left undone. 
Millions of American school children have done the health chores of the 
Crusade vv^ithin the last five years. The play and romance of the Crusade, 
its health chivalry, give children the incentive to work systematically and 

The results of Crusade w^ork are physical and moral* improvement and 
better attendance and deportment at school. The Crusade links the school 
and the home in health work. 


The requirements of the Crusade are simply (a) the performance of the 
health chores, (b) the recording of performance as directed and (c) the award 
of chivalric titles. 

(The teacher should now read the chore record or the explanations in 
§ 7 to § 9 of the manual). 


There are four sets of Crusade chores, eleven chores in each set. The 
sets are graded progressively and are recommended for use in grades 3, 4, 5 
and 6 successively. The sets of chores are printed on different editions of 
the chore record, Form A for the third grade, Form B for the fourth, Form 
C for the fifth, and Form D for the sixth. If, however, one edition is to be 
used for several grades, Form B is recommended. 

It is advisable to have the chores performed for at least 24 weeks during 
the school year. Many schools conduct the course for 30 weeks. In the case 
of short term rural schools a course of not less than 12 weeks is permissible. 

Pupils in grades higher than the 6th and pupils who can write in grades 
lower than the 3rd may qualify as Crusaders by the chores on Forms A, B, 
C or D. It is much better, however, for pupils in the 7th and higher grades, 
having completed the series, to carry out the Round Table activities including 
community sanitation work, in the optional program of the Crusade. (See 
§ 37 to § 50.) Children in the kindergarten and first two grades may more 
profitably be drilled in health chores through posters and record sheets made 
bv themselves as a project, preparatorv to becoming Crusaders in grade 3. 
(See § 15 to § 20.) 

Besides the chores on Forms A, B, C and D, which are adapted to chil- 
dren in general, a set of Crusade chores for undernourished or delicate chil- 
dren is published. (See "Weight and Nutrition," page 7 and § 10 to § 12.) 

* See § 63. 



The chore records are kept at home for recording performance. The 
child and one of his parents are required to sign each record and the teacher 
must approve before the claim of performance is allowed to count towards a 
title. By placing the child on his honor and supervising the recording of 
chores the parent makes Crusade work a drill in truthfulness. In the school 
it is advisable to set aside a few minutes each day for prompting the pupils 
on their chores and conducting hygienic inspection. (See § 22.) 


On completion of tne course for the first year every pupil who has done 
54 chores each week has a right to the title of Squire; and on the completion 
of the course for two, three, and four years the pupil becomes successively 
Knight, Knight Banneret, and Knight Banneret Constant. The last title 
can never be earned in less than four years. Pupils who have failed in one 
or more weeks may be allowed additional weeks in the school term in which 
to complete their records. 

The award of titles is best indicated by paper stars placed on the wall 
chart, ''Roll of Health Knighthood," and by badges or other insignia given to 
the children. The use of insignia, however, is not obligatory. Schools may 
make the awards in any manner they see fit. Knighting ceremonies are 
helpful in impressing Crusade teachings. (See § 33.) 


At the beginning of the course, the names of all pupils are written on the 
Roll of Health Knighthood as "pages," candidates to become Crusaders. 
Their progress throughout the year is then shown by stars or other marks. 
(The Roll has columns also for recording pupils' weights from month to 
month. Tables of average weights for boys and girls are printed on it.) 

The insignia provided are: 

L Certificate of Title of Squire. This certificate states that the boy or 
girl named '*has a satisfactory record of doing at least 75% of the Crusaders* 
health chores for the number of weeks required for first honors in health 
knighthood; has agreed to try (1) to do nothing that may hurt the health of 
any other person, (2) to help keep home and town clean and (3) to obey the 
Crusaders' Code until the end of December following this school year; and 
therefore is enrolled until then as a Modern Health Crusader and is granted 
the title of Squire." 

The certificate, printed in two colors and illustrated, carries also the Crusaders' 
Code (general health rules), average weight tables and a ruled chart on which the 
pupil may enter his "health scores" including his weights from month to month, 
for display at home. 

For schools desiring to give the code, tables and scoring chart to pupils before 
they have earned the title of squire, the portion of the certificate conveying the 
title may readily be cut off for later use. 

2. Buttons and metal pins are provided as badges for Knights, Knights 
Banneret and Knights Banneret Constant. 


The Crusade system has been made a curriculum activity in thousands 
of schools. The regular school credits given for Crusade work are an im- 
portant incentive to pupils. Credits should never, however, take the place of 
the chivalric titles. Both should be employed. 


With the following table the teacher may easily compute a pupil's credits 
for performance of chores. It is based on the allowance of full credits for a 
Crusade course. If Crusade work is included in a course in physiology or 
hygiene and one-half or one-third credits are allowed for the chores, the per- 
centages earned will be one-half or one-third of those in the tables. To 
determine a pupil's credit for a school month the teacher adds his credits for 
each week and divides the sum by the number of weeks in the month. 


12 chores 


62 chores 


52 chores 


71 " 


61 '* • 


51 " 


70 " 


60 " 


50 " 


69 " 


59 " 


49 " 


68 " 


58 " 


48 " 


67 " 


57 " 


47 " 


66 " 


56 " 


46 " 


65 " 


55 " 


45 " 


64 " 


54 " 


44 " 


63 " 


53 " 


43 " 



The Crusade is adaptable to every elementary school, graded or ungraded. 
The school that devotes from ten to fifteen minutes to it daily, finds the entire 
work of the day improved. If, however, a school allows no time for practical 
health training the teacher may give pupils the benefit of the Crusade in large 
part by distributing the chore records to be taken home after one short talk 
of explanation. When performance has been checked at home for the time 
required the pupil brings the record for the teacher to inspect. If she issue a 
second record at once she may inspect the first at her leisure, instead of re- 
turning it on that day. 


Crusade supplies are obtained by schools through the local department 
of education or the state association affiliated with the National Tuberculosis 
Association (New York City). The National Association publishes Crusade 
material at the lowest possible cost. The expense per pupil ranges from 1^ 
to 53^2 cents for a 24-week course. In many localities school authorities pay 
for Crusade material in like manner as for text-books. 


A. (1) Chore records. (Sufficient number to supply scoring spaces for 
the weeks of the course ; 10 to 20% additional for losses.) 

B. (2) "Brief Explanation" or the Manual, one for each teacher. (3) 
Roll of Health Knighthood, one per class of not more than 40 pupils. 
(Gummed paper stars, about three per pupil, are desirable.) (4) Certificate 
of squire, one per pupil. (5) Buttons or pins for Knights, Knights Banneret 
and Knights Banneret Constant, one each for approximately 80% of the 
pupils. Schools provided with the Roll (3) may dispense with the insignia 
(4 and 5) but the use of all is recommended. 

C. Tournament guide, tournament report form. Round Table report form, 
wall chart "Keep Well Guide," prompter and hygienic inspection blank, 
knighthood stories, health stories, Crusade songs, health playlets, Crusade 

Every school must be provided with (A) the chore records, if its pupils 
are to qualify as Crusaders. Supplies listed under B and C are highly recom- 
mended. B supplies are essential for most schools, and the C supplies are 
very helpful. 

For prices of material address your state association. 


Give a talk to your pupils comparing the Crusade with the crusades of 
old and the quests of brave knights. Arouse the children's interest by a story 
of chivalry from such books as "The Perfect Gentle Knight," World Book 
Co., Yonkers, N. Y. ; "King Arthur and His Knights," Rand McNally & Co., 
Chicago; "Page, Esquire and Knight," Ginn & Co., Boston. Set forth the 
privilege of being health knights, their service and happiness. Explain their 
titles and rewards. The Roll of Health Knighthood and samples of any 
insignia to be used should be displayed. 

Distribute chore records to the class and have each chore record read 
and discussed. Have each child who is new to the work place his finger on 
the space where he is to make an X for a chore done on a certain day. Explain 
the requirement of certification "on honor" and of signatures. Direct the 
pupils to pin the records up at home where they and their parents will see the 
records constantly and will "check up" performance every evening. Tell the 
children when they are to return their records to you. Remind them of their 
chores every day. Base several lessons in reading, language and arithmetic 
on the chores and calculation of credits. 

Enlist the support of the community. Explain the Crusade to the parent- 
teacher association, women's club and pastors of churches. Supply your 
newspaper with a short article on the Crusade and give it news from time to 
time on the pupils' progress in health knighthood. 

Keep interest high by such of the following optional Crusade activities cts 
you can take up. 


It is recommended that pupils be weighed once a month. Performance 
of the chores tends to give pupils right weight and the weight entries on the 
Roll of Knighthood make a useful record of progress. For children as much 
as 10% under weight and for those who are sickly, the Crusade nutrition 
chores are recommended. Apply for "Chore Record-Nutrition Edition" and 
for the "Instructions to Teachers and Nutrition Workers." 


Crusade tournaments are competitions between schools or classes for the 
best average record in chores. The National Tournament in Health Knight- 
hood is conducted twice during the school year. Every class or school with 
an enrollment as large as seven is privileged to become a jouster, if the teacher 
so desires. It is merely necessary to keep the records of the pupils' per- 
formance of chores over 15 consecutive weeks, and to submit a report occom- 
panied by the chore records. Any period of 15 weeks may be selected by the 
teacher between the first Sunday in September and the last Saturday in 
February and between the first Sunday in January and the second Saturday 
in June. Apply for the tournament guide circular and report form. Hundreds 
of schools have won national pennants. 


The Order of the Round Table is an optional 

feature of the Crusade recommended as a means of 

health training additional to the chores. Crusaders 

become Knights of the Round Table by earning points 

in some of the following ways : physical examinations, 

tests in nutrition, posture and athletics, high standing 

in hygiene or physiology, first aid, swimming, scouting 

and community sanitation. (See § 37 to § 50.) 

Other recommended activities explained in the manual are tooth brush 

drills, setting up exercises, story telling and games, project chore records and 

health books, playlets, pageants and health clubs. 











2. Principles and Pedagogy 

When boys and girls, in all states of the Union and in foreign countries in three 
continents, take up the systematic performance of "health chores," a phenomenon i^ 
presented that invites explanation. The health chores have of themselves no attraction 
for the average child; they are to him odious duties, performed only under social or 
parental pressure. 

Good reasons for doing hygienic duties are set forth attractively in the modern 
type of school text-book. No set of facts to be learned in school has greater value, but 
usually the pupil fails to translate this knowledge into his ov^n conduct except under 
outside influences. "Education among us consists too much in telling and not enough 
in training." The Modern Health Crusade brings into the schools a distinct influence 
serving to reinforce established courses in hygiene, physiology, physical training and 
sanitation. It does not conflict with such courses but adds vitality. 

Personal and community health is the object of these courses. Health is not so 
much a matter of extensive knowledge of facts as of will to comply with a few simple 
laws from day to day until compliance becomes habitual. The Crusade system supplies 
the will by interesting the child. Interest is sustained so that will may continue to 
function and the repetition of action required by the law of habit formation may be 
secured. The Crusade applies to the pupil the pedogogical principle of learning by 
doing. Habits are formed while reasons are being learned. As in Alice in Wonder- 
land, "the best way to explain it is to do it." The value of health, the direct motive, 
is not sufficient to arouse the child's will. An adult seldom values health sufficiently 
to follow its laws closely until sickness makes health sorely missed. An indirect motive 
is important for the adult and indispensable for the child. The Crusade supplies the 
child with a powerful indirect motive for patient work in acquiring good health habits. 

In providing the motive the Crusade utilizes various principles of child psychology. 
Every child wants to play: every child likes to play that he is grown up and is doing 
great deeds. The Crusade introduces a play element into the practice of hygiene. It 

transfers the romance of the medieval Crusades to a vital present-day quest. It holds 
up to children the chivalry of health, a field for great deeds. It dramatizes the pursuit 
of health. The Crusade allows the child to follow his imitative instinct. It makes him 
feel — and rightly — that he is of some importance and that he is taking an active part 
in a great movement. The Crusade makes an instant appeal to the child, through its 
titles, won by his own achievement. It interests him in its group contests. It provides 
Dr. Burnham's "stimulus of success" for children in large numbers, not for a single 
prize winner who succeeds while all his mates must fail. The Crusade appeals to the 
child in the spirit of emulation rather than competition, of reaching a high standard 
rather than surpassing another child. 

Opportunity to belong to the national Crusade appeals strongly to the child. He 
finds an outlet for patriotic aspirations. He has incentive to do his part to assure 
the country that in another draft for war one person out of three shall not be rejected 
for physical defects due to bad health habits. 

3. Adopted as a Curriculum Course 

The departments of education of more than one-third of the states have adopted 
the Modern Health Crusade as a curriculum activity. The manuals of physical educa- 
tion issued by a number of states incorporate instructions for conducting Crusade 
work. Local school systems in every section of the United States employ the Crusade 
to make teaching of hygiene practical. . xt • 

Resolutions endorsing the Crusade system have been adopted by the National 
Education Association and the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher 

4. Results 

The Crusade promotes good health and the prevention of disease not only for chil- 
dren but for their families and neighbors. On the moral side, the Crusade contributes 


to the child a needed drill in truthfulness, regularity in duty, and education of the will. 
The method of recording performance of the chores, under which the child is put on 
his honor to choose between right and wrong statements, affords an ethical discipline 
comparable in value to the physical discipline. (See §63.) The Crusade awakens re- 
sponsibility for community welfare and makes the teacher's work lighter by keeping 
the children's minds alert and by promoting both attention and attendance. 

The following quotations are from letters written by school superintendents, state, 
city and rural: 

"The whole work of the Crusade is practical and wholesome and no child partici- 
pating can help being benefited." 

"The movement rapidly gained the support of the teaching force and the grade 
officials, all of whom endorsed it in very positive terms as productive of marked good." 

"The teachers in charge are all delighted with the work and do not hesitate to say 
that colds and usual epidemics are lacking where the health chores have been kept up." 

"After a few weeks of the Crusade, I regard the results as superior to a year of 
physiology as ordinarily taught. 

(From a superintendent who was skeptical) *T presented the matter at the teachers* 
meeting in a half-hearted way. It was presented to the pupils the next day. Imagine 
my surprise when I reached home to find my own children as enthusiastic as they had 
ever been over Christmas! * * * Mothers stopped me on the street to thank me for 
making it so easy for them to keep their children clean and for leading them to form 
good habits that had seemed impossible before." 

5. Scope 

The Modern Health Crusade is directed broadly to the upbuilding of health. Its 

campaign is not limited to tuberculosis or any particular disease. While the Crusade 
is essentially a system of instruction, to the Crusaders it has the appeal of an organ- 
ization. Schools taking up Crusade work do not, however, assume membership obli- 
gation in any organization. Such organization as is suggested in this manual is optional 
with school authorities and is designed to appeal to children, giving them mass stimulus 
to health activities. 

6. Aid to Hygiene — Coordination — Credits 

Teachers conducting textbook courses in hygiene, physiology and sanitation will 
find that taking time to direct their pupils in the performance of the Crusade chores 
will vitalize these courses. The chores and rules of the Crusade are the essence of 
hygiene. The application which successive portions of progressive textbooks like the 
following have to the several chores is apparent and should be cited by the teacher in 
each instance for the purpose of clinching knowledge derived from the books: 

Overton. "Personal Hygiene," "General Hygiene." Davison, "Health Lessons." 
American Book Co. 

Emerson and Betts, "Hygiene and Health," "Physiology and Hygiene." Bobbs- 

Haviland, "The Playhouse." "The Most Wonderful House in the World." J. B. 

Gulick, "Hygiene Series." Ginn & Co. 

Winslow, "Healthy Living," I-II. C. E. Merrill Co. 

O'Shea and Kellogg, "Health Series." Macmillan. 

Ritchie and Caldwell, "Primer of Hygiene." Ritchie, "Primer of Sanitation," 
"Primer of Physiology." World Book Co. 

Hallock and Winslow, "Land of Health."^ C. E. Merrill Co. 

Schools are coordinating Crusade work with various studies, such as reading, com- 
position and arithmetic, as well as the health studies. The National Association will 
refer principals to outlines or syllabi for use of teachers in coordinating the work. It 
will also refer normal schools and teachers' associations to speakers experienced in 
Crusade work, prepared to lecture or conduct institutes. 

The practice of giving school credits to pupils for doing Crusade work and to 
teachers for conducting it has become common. In some states teachers are authorized 
to grant credits as high as 50 per cent, in physiology and hygiene for doing and record- 
ing Crusade chores. In some schools Crusade work is credited to pupils as a course 
separate from any other. In one state where Crusade work is not obligatory the 
majority of county superintendents have allowed teachers from 10 to 50 professional 
credits out of a required 200, for conducting a Crusade course. 


Recommended especially for grades 3, 4, 5 and 6. For work for other grades see 
§15 to §20 and % 37 to §50. 

7. How to Become Crusaders 

All children who can write may become Modern Health Crusaders. The require- 


merit for each child is the performance of not less than 54 Crusade chores each week 
for the number of weeks prescribed by his teacher or other adult Crusade leader. This 
must not be less than 12 weeks in a school year; at least 24 weeks is recommended. 
(See pp. 4 and 5, paragraphs (a), (b) and (c). 

The performance of 72 chores in one week, consisting of the first 10 chores every 
day and the eleventh chore twice during the week is considered a perfect score, 100%. 
Fifty-four chores is the passing percentage, 75%. If the candidate does even less than 
54 chores one week, he may make that week up by doing 54 in an additional week. The 
weeks need not be consecutive for the child to become a Crusader and earn successive 
titles, although they must be consecutive to be credited in a tournament. Chore 11 must be 
performed at least one day each week. 

On the chore record scoring tables are printed covering each day for several weeks. 
For each chore done completely, the child or his parent marks a cross (X) in the 
space for that day. 

The chore record should be pinned up conspicuously at home. Parents are asked 
to prompt their children and superintend the checking of chores at bedtime. 

8. Membership 

Squires, Knights and Knights Banneret have only temporary membership in the 
Modern Health Crusade movement, except as they re-qualify by performance of chores. 
Membership ends the last day of Decernber next following the school year in which 
the title is earned. Crusaders with the title of achievement, Knight Banneret Constant, 
retain membership through all the years of their lives, except for such times as they 
may not be faithful to the Crusaders' chores. 

9. The Chores 

The four sets of graded chores recommended for grades 3, 4, 5 and 6 are as follows: 

CHORES. FORM A (GRADE 3) First Week 

1. I washed my hands before each 
meal today. 

2. I brushed my teeth thoroughly. 

3. I tried hard to keep fingers and 
pencils out of my mouth and nose. 

4. I carried a clean handkerchief. 

5. I drank three glasses of water, but 
no tea nor coffee. 

6. I tried to eat only wholesome 
food including vegetables and 

7. I drank slowly two glasses of 

8. I went to toilet at regular time. 

9. I played outdoors or with win- 
dows open a half hour. 

10. I was in bed eleven or more 
hours last night, windows open. 

11. I had a complete bath on each 
day of the week that is checked 

Total number of chores done each 


First Week 

Second Week 

Third Week 























Notes on Chores "A" as Numbered 

1. Use soap. Wash hands always be- 
fore handling food prepared for eat- 
ing. Clean fingernails every day. 

2. Brush the teeth up and down. Brush 
the front, back and biting surfaces. 
Work all food out from between the 
teeth. Rinse the mouth. 

3. Keep from your mouth anything 
touched by the mouth of another 
person. Wash all raw unpeeled 
fruits before eating. 

4. Use your handkerchief to cover your 
mouth and nose when you cough or 

5. A whole glass of water need not be 
drunk at one time. A glass of milk 
may take the place of a glass of water. 

6. Food should include oatmeal or 
wholegrain cereals, coarse breads, and 
vegetables like onions, turnips and 

7. Milk should be drunk slowly so as to 
be mixed with saliva before each 

8. Bowels should move freely every day 
at a regular time, preferably after 

9. Play should give vigorous general 
exercise. Setting up exercises may 
be counted. If you are much under- 
weight you should rest quietly for at 
least 30 minutes in the daytime and 
should not play hard. 

10. The best place to sleep is a sleeping 
porch. Have enough bed clothes to 
keep your body warm and comfort- 
able. Breathe through your nose. If 
you can't breathe with your mouth 
closed, see a physician. 

11. Several all-over warm baths each 
week, followed by cool dash are ad- 


1. I washed my hands before each meal. 
I cleaned my finger-nails today. 

2. I brushed my teeth after breakfast 7. 
and the evening meal. 

3. I carried a handkerchief and used it 
to protect others if I coughed or 
sneezed. 8. 

4. I tried to avoid accidents to others 9. 
and myself. I looked both ways io_ 
when crossing the street (road). 

5. I drank four glasses of water but no n^ 
tea, cofifee nor any harmful drink. 

6. I had three wholesome meals includ- 

ing a nourishing breakfast. I drank 


I ate some cereal or bread, green 

(watery) vegetable and fruit, but ate 

no candy nor "sweets" unless at the 

end of a meal. 

I went to toilet at my regular time. 

I tried to sit and to stand straight. 

I was in bed eleven hours last night, 

windows open. 

I had a complete bath and rubbed 

myself dry on each day of the week 

checked (x). 

Notes on Chores "B" as Numbered 

1. You should wash your hands before 
handling any food prepared for eat- 
ing. Soap should be used. Wash 
face, ears and neck every day. 

2. Brush teeth up and down. Brush the 
front, back and biting surfaces. Brush 
after every meal, if possible, and 
rinse. It is wise to use dental floss 
with care daily. Go to the dentist at 
least twice a year, without waiting 
for toothache. 

3. If you cough or sneeze, turn aside 
and cover mouth and nose with hand- 
kerchief. Put spit only where no per- 
son nor fly can touch it. 

4. Do not "catch on" or "swing off" 
moving vehicles. Do not throw or 
place anything in a way that may in- 
jure anyone. 

5. Drink a glass of water on getting up. 
Drink some before each meal. 

6. You should drink — s1ow1y~two to 
four glasses of milk (preferably un- 
skimmed) each day. Milk may be 
counted as water for chore 5. 

7. Eat oatmeal or whole grain cereals, 
coarse breads, and watery vegetables, 
like onions, turnips, carrots, cabbage 
and spinach. Chew food thoroughly. 

8. Your bowels should move freely 
every day and without use of drugs. 
Observe a fixed time right after 

9. Stand "tall"; lie "long." Walk with 
head up. Exercise your muscles in 
the open air. Breathe through your 

10. Boys and girls eleven years of age 
may change this chore to "ten hours 
in bed" but eleven hours is better. 
Those fourteen to sixteen years of 
age may change this chore to "nine 
hours in bed," but ten is better. 

11. Bathe with warm water, washcloth 
and soap. Finish with cool water 
dash. Boys should wash their hair 
once a week; girls, at least once a 
month. Underwear should be changed 
after the bath at least once a week. 



1. Besides my hands, I washed my face, 6. 
ears, and neck, 1 combed or brushed my 
hair today. 7. 

2. I cleaned my teeth after breakfast and 
the evening meal, brushing front, back, 

and chewing surfaces of all teeth. 8- 

3. I did not use a "common" cup or towel. g 
I coughed or spit only when necessary 

and was careful to protect others. 

4. I was careful to keep myself and my \q 
desk neat, and helped keep the whole 
school and grounds in order. 

5. I drank four glasses of water and no 11. 
tea, coflFee, nor any harmful drinks. I 

did not wash my food down. 

(GRADE 5) 

I chewed my food thoroughly, ate slowly 

and did not run soon after meals. 

I ate either some beans, eggs, cheese, 

fish or meat at one meal. 1 ate watery 

vegetables or fruit. 

I attended to toilet at my regular time, 

and washed my hands afterwards. 

I tried to keep good posture and to 

breathe fresh air always, through my 


I was in bed ten or more hours last 

night, windows open. I stretched out 

"long" when waiting for sleep. 

I took a full bath on each day of the 

week that is checked (x). 1 put on clean 

underwear at least once this week. 

Notes on Chores "C" as Numbered 

1. Put nothing in your ears except the 
washcloth. Clean your fingernails at 
least once a day. 

2. Brush teeth up and down. Brush 
after every meal if possible and rinse. 
It is wise to use dental floss with care 
every day. Use a dentifrice that is 
not gritty. 

3. If you cough or sneeze, turn aside and 
cover mouth and nose with handker- 
chief. Have your own towel, wash 
cloth, glass, etc., used by no one else. 

4. This chore requires cleaning of fin- 
gernails. Shoes should be brushed. 
Soil and grease spots should be re- 
moved from clothes. Hair should be 
"tidy" at school. Don't litter yard or 
building with papers. 

5. Have four or more regular times for 

drinking water. Milk at meals may 
be counted as water for chore 5. 

6. Take plenty of time for meals. Show 
good manners. Sit straight. Make 
meal time pleasant for all. Avoid hard 
exercise immediately before or after 

7. Eat meat or fish not more than once 
a day. 

9. Stand "tall." Walk "head up." When 
sitting do not bend forward at the 
waist but only at the hips. 

10. Boys and girls 14 to 16 years of age 
may perform this chore by nine hours 
in bed, but ten hours is better. Those 
under 10 years should sleep eleven 
hours at least. 

11. Bathe with warm water and soap. 
Use a clean wash cloth. Finish with 
cool water dash. 


1. I gave careful attention to personal 
cleanliness and neatness of appearance 
today. I tried to keep my surroundings 
sightly and sanitary. 

2. I sought to keep the ventilation good 
and the temperature under seventy de- 
grees in every room I occupied. 

3. I tried to be cheerful, straightforward 
and clean minded; to do one thing at a 
time and the most important thing first. 

4. I was careful to do nothing to hurt the 
health of anyone else. I played fair. I 
did willingly at least one kind act for 
another person. 

5. I used no tea, coffee, nor any harmful 
drink ; no tobacco in any form, nor any 
injurious drug. 

6. I tried to have a "balanced" diet, includ- 
ing energy-making, tissue-building and 

regulating foods. I was careful not to 
overeat but tried to keep my weight 

7. I held reading matter not less than 
twelve inches from my eyes. I did not 
read lying down or with straining light 
or facing the light. 

8. I gave proper attention to elimination. 

9. I played or exercised for at least an 
hour in fresh air, avoiding overfatigue. 
I breathed deeply and was careful to 
keep good posture. 

10. I was in bed ten hours last night, win- 
dows open. I did not allow a pillow to 
make me "round-shouldered." 

11. Besides bathing this week, I washed or 
otherwise thoroughly cleaned my hair 
and scalp on each day checked. 

Notes on Chores "D" as Numbered 

1. This chore requires daily washing of 
face, ears, neck and all parts of the 
body that because of dirt or perspiration 
need washing; also, cleaning the finger- 
nails is required. 


For ventilation windows should 
opened both at top and bottom. 
Cultivation of will through concentra- 
tion, promptness and regularity and the 
development of character promote health. 


4. Be unselfish. Keep your temper. Self the need is felt or when your regular 
control is needed for health and success. time comes. 

5. Avoid "soda fountain"' drinks containing 9. Play should give general muscular ex- 
caffeine or other harmful drugs. ercise. If you are much underweight 

6. In your diet of the day include fruit. ^^°P P^^^/"^ ^f°^^, ^^^ ^'^ ,^''^^ ^"^ 

coarse breads, whole grain cereals and da time ^^ ^ '"^ 

vegetables like spinach, onions, carrots, iad^^ "j -i ^a . i^r <• 

turnips in addition to Starchy food like ^^- ^°>^^ ^"^ ^''If. ^^^^ ^^ years of age 

the potato and protein food like meat. ^71?'/°'"?,' l\^^ "'"^ ^'''''' '" 

^ ... ^ ,^ _ , , , bed but ten hours is better. 

7. If your eyes hurt or if you have head- n. Hair and scalp should be thoroughly 
aches after reading, you should consult cleansed at least once a week with newly 
an oculist Keep fingers dirty handker- cleaned brush and comb. Boys should 
chiefs and towels away from your eyes. shampoo their hair once a week. Girls 

8. Never postpone attention to toilet when at least once a month. 


10. Nutrition Chores 

The chores listed above may be known as "normal chores." They are for average 
children, those who need drill in practices important for health in an all around sense. 
A blank is provided on all chore records on which the child's weight from month to 
month may be entered, in comparison with standard weight for height and age, and 
reported to his parents. The normal chores, however, have no particular reference to 
malnourished children. The following special "nutrition chores" are provided for them. 

1. I was weighed this week on the day checked (X). 

2. Besides a nourishing breakfast and the noon and evening meals, I ate morning 
and afternoon lunches, as directed. 

3. I ate only wholesome food to-day, including at least a pint of milk, vegetables 
and fruit, as directed; and tried always to eat and drink slowly. 

4. I drank four glasses of water, some before each meal, and drank no tea, coffee 
nor any injurious drink. 

5. I went to toilet at my regular time. 

6. I was in bed last night ten or more hours, as directed, windows open. 

7. I rested, lying down more than twenty minutes, both this morning and this 
afternoon, as directed. 

8. I played in the fresh air to-day, exercising for the time and in the way directed, 

9. I washed my hands before each meal to-day. 

10. I brushed my teeth thoroughly after breakfast and after the evening meal. 

11. I took a full bath on each day of the week that is checked (X). 

The nutrition chores are not varied for different school grades. They may be used 
for underweight children of any grade and may take the place of either Form A, B. 
C or D of the normal chores in determining the child's chivalric titles. The performance 
of 54 nutrition chores each week qualifies the child as a Crusader. 

For an understanding of the Crusade nutrition course, the teacher should apply 
for the "Chore Record — Nutrition Edition," and the circular "Instructions to Teachers 
and Nutrition Workers." 

11. Weighing and Physical Examination 

The nutrition chores are recommended for children as much as 10 per cent, below 
standard weight. While it cannot be shown that every child 10% under weight is mal- 
nourished, 10% or even 7% may be taken as an indication that the nutrition chores may 
be advantageously prescribed. 

Although many authorities pronounce overweight of 20% or more a condition indi- 
cating the need of special study and treatment, yet for purposes of simplicity the 
system here outlined is designed for use in relation to underweight children only. 
See also § 43. 

A complete physical examination by a physician is highly desirable for every child 
at least once each year. It is a first step required of children who are to become Cru- 
saders through the nutrition chores and should be repeated when time for correction 
of defects has elapsed. A physical examination is far superior to mere weighing and 
measuring in determining whether a child is undernourished and is indispensable for 
determining certain ailments that may not be accompanied by loss of weight. Never- 
theless, if a school cannot secure the services of a physician it is recommended that all 
pupils be weighed and that those 10% or more under weight be advised to be scrupu- 
lously faithful to their health chores and be examined by a physician as soon as pos- 
sible. Undernourished children who on account of serious physical defects or ailments 
require the constant supervision of a physician should be treated in nutrition clinics 
or classes or by other intensive methods. 



The child should be weighed in his ordinary indoor clothing without coat or 
sweater. Shoes should be removed. Height should be measured at least every six 
months. The child should stand with feet together and close against the measuring 
rod. For lack of a rod, two yard-sticks may be tacked, or a tape measure may be 
pasted, on a wall. A book placed edgewise on the head and against the tape at right 
angles indicates the height. Apply the weight, height and age to the standard weight 
tables. They are printed on the nutrition chore record, the Roll of Health Knighthood 
and Squire's Certificate. See also § 43. Consider the child's age to be that at his 
birthday less than six months from date, either past or future. Find the difference 
between his actual weight and the standard (average) weight shown on the tables. 
Determine what percentage of the standard weight this difference represents. This is 
done by adding a decimal point and two ciphers to the difference and dividing the 
standard weight into it. The percentage is the number of hundredths in the quotient. 
A table giving percentages fully computed is available. See list of supplies, § 14. 

12. Nutrition-Chore Record. A Weight Chart 

In the nutrition chore record the table of spaces for checking chores serves also 
as a chart for "plotting weight curves." Lines are drawn on it to indicate the child's 
change in weight over 10 weeks and the change in weight that the average child of 
the same height and age makes. This is illustrated in the chore record printed on pages 
24 and 25. The teacher or school nurse writes consecutive numbers in columns R and 
W ranging from three pounds below the child's weight on the start of the nutrition 
course to ten pounds above it. In the case illustrated, Robert's weight on or before 
February 12th was 63 lbs. This is shown by the dot made in column R at the scale 
division line for 63. He was weighed each Friday. The dots made in the Friday 
columns are so placed as to indicate Robert's successive weights on the scale in column 
R and in column W. The lines connecting these dots make his "actual weight line." 

"Standard weight" for a boy of Robert's age, 9, and height, 54 inches, is 70 lbs. and 
the average boy of 9 gains about 1% lbs. in 10 weeks, reaching 71^ lbs. (The approx- 
imate gain to be expected is shown in a table on the nutrition chore record.) The 
straight line drawn from the 70 point in column R to the 71^4 point in column W 
accordingly is the "Standard Weight Line." Every underweight child finds the interest 
of a game in striving to make his actual weight line cross the average weight line, as 
in Robert's case. 

The nutrition chore record is ordinarily kept at home for checking the chores each 
day and is brought to the school or the nutrition class on the weighing day each week 
for the teacher to draw the weight lines. The nutrition chore records like the normal 
chore records, are brought to the teacher for determining school gradings or credits at 
the close of each school month or other period such as 5 or 6 weeks as determined 
by the school. 


For list of stories on nutrition, suitable for the younger grades, see § 64. 


13. Costs and Financing 

The cost of Crusade material is so low and the results of a Crusade course are so 
beneficial that all schools are justified in including Crusade supplies among the material 
provided for pupils. For schools that use the least amount of Crusade supplies with 
which the chore course may be conducted, the cost of supplies is approximately 1 cent 
per pupil for 24 weeks. For schools that use all the material recommended, including 
insignia of the most expensive type, the cost is approximately 55^ cents per pupil. (This 
is increased somewhat, by the award of badges to Knights Banneret Constant.) 

The number of schools meeting the expense of Crusade courses has multiplied 
rapidly. The national and state tuberculosis associations and the Junior Red Cross, 
the organizations that meet the expense almost entirely in the yearly development of the 
Crusade, cannot, from limited funds contributed for various lines of philanthropy, per- 
manently meet the expense of a movement best conducted by the schools. If Crusade 
supplies are not furnished free by the schools or pupils are not required to purchase 
them like textbooks, expenses are met frequently by local organizations, such as charn- 
bers of commerce, parent-teacher associations, patriotic organizations and women's 
clubs. A Junior Red Cross group earned more than twice the cost of Crusade work 
in its community by charging 15 cents admission to its presentation of the Crusade 
playlet "King Good Health Wins." (See "Playlets," §53.) "Community Suppers" have 
proved successful in financing Crusade work. Money has been raised by inviting cer- 
tain adults to join a local Crusade club or league as honorary members with dues of 
from one to ten dollars. 


14. List of Supplies 

The general distributor of Modern Health Crusade supplies throughout each state 
is the tuberculosis or health association for that state listed on the last page of this 
manual. Price quotations may be obtained by inquiry of the state association or national 
association. Sample copies of printed matter are sent free to applicants within the 
state. The National Association will mail a complete set of sample copies, including 
this manual, on receipt of 4c. postage. 

♦Chore Records (Normal) 

Chore records are printed in two editions and each edition in Forms A, B, C and 
D for the four graded sets of chores. The first edition is in ten pages, two colors, 
carrying scoring spaces for 24 weeks. The second edition is a single sheet, two pages 
(6^x10 in.), one color, with a score card for six weeks. The cost of one of the 10- 
page records is approximately twice the cost of four of the two-page records. 

* Nutrition chore record (ungraded) 

* Brief Explanation for Teachers 

* Manual (this pamphlet) 

* (Course of Study in Hygiene. A handbook now in preparation, outlining for teachers 

a complete course for each elementary grade throughout the school year.) 

* Instructions to Teachers and Nutrition Workers 

* Table of percentages under or over standard weight 

* Squire's Certificate of Enrolment 

* Knight's button 

Knight Banneret's button or pin 
Knight Banneret Constant's pin 

* Roll of Health Knighthood (wall chart) 

Dennison gummed stars. No. 1, purchased of stationers: green (squire), blue (knight), 
red (knight banneret), silver (knight banneret constant), gold (knights of Round 

* Guide to Tournaments and Cup Contests 

* Report Form for Tournaments and Cup Contests 

* Prompter and Hygienic Inspection Blank 

* Round Table Report Form 

Round Table Certificate of Membership 
Round Table Badge 

* Keep Well Guide for Every Day and Food for Growing Children (Reversible wall 

chart illustrated in colors on both sides) 
Commission for Health Club 
Banners for 100% enrolment Knights Banneret 
Pennants "Modern Health Crusaders" 
Paper Pennants "Modern Health Crusaders" 
Panels (posters) on chores, 12 to a set (National Child Welfare Assn.) 

* Crusade Minstrel (song book) 

* Ellis Parker Butler's Crusade Story 

Health Plays listed in circular "Plays and Pageantry" 

* Health Stories 

In ordering supplies those marked with the star (*) should be secured before the 
opening of the Crusade course. Those not so marked may be secured later, if expedient. 

Quantities needed are suggested on page 6. Insignia should be ordered at least 
3 or 4 weeks before they are earned to make sure that the expectant Crusaders be not 
kept waiting. 


The chart, "Keep-Well Guide for Every Day," listed above, has unusual educative 

It is made of durable paper, tinned at top and bottom, and is printed in colors on 
both sides, A time schedule of hygienic duties, covering the Crusade chores, is featured 
on one side under the headings, Morning, Forenoon, Noon, Afternoon, Evening, All 
Day, while a pleasing cartoon presents a dietary incidentally. The other side features 
a dietary under the headings, Breakfast, Dinner, Supper or Lunch, The Best Foods 
and Foods to Avoid, while in the border eleven drawings of a high type of art illustrate 
the chores. The teacher is instructed, in a fine-print notice, to expose the sides alter- 
nately a month at a time. 


For the kindergarten and the first and second grades. 

15. Crusaders' Code 

The Crusaders' Code furnishes a condensed statement of most of the health chores 
in the form of rules. The Code groups these rules under the nine principles of the 








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^M -'' 








», deep hfcJiKs 
of frtih lir I proitcicd oihtrt .( I ?pi1, 
coughed Of <i«JcdL 

I wished my (ace, tin and neck, ind I 
cluncJ my (mc email v 

hfu'.heJ my teeth chorOuKhly jf(ef 

b'ejkfiM and jlicr ihc oemnj nitiL 

Food for Growing 


Fruit, cereal, glass of milk, bread 
(whole wheat) and butter, egg. 


Starchy vegetable (potato or rice), other 
vegetables (like string beans, spinach, 
carrots or beets), a little protein (eggs, 
peas, beans, fish or meat), bread and 
butter, dessert (plain pudding or fruit). 

Portion of "Keep Well Guide" wall chart. 

Crusade and these principles are symbolized by the Crusaders' cross of nine circles. 
The rules, the principles and the cross may advantageously be used in health teaching 
for all elementary grades. They are the base for the Crusade course for the beginning 

1. Air — Be outdoors much of your time. When indoors, be sure that ventilation 
is good. Breathe through your nose. Breathe deeply when exercising. 

2. Exercise — Play and exercise daily. If you are undernourished, have a rest 
period in the daytime; exercise thoroughly, but stop before you are tired. 

3. Food — Eat wholesome food, including fruit, coarse breads, wholegrain cereals, 
and vegetables such as carrots onions and greens Avoid fried foods, soggy breads, 
pickles, spices; avoid much meat, pie crust, cake and sweets, and all impure candy. 
Eat a nourishing breakfast Have three regula* meals Drink, slowly, at least two 
glasses of unskimmed milk, pasteurized or pure. Drink plenty of pure water. 

4. Cleanliness — Wash your hands always before eating or handling food. Wash 
ears, neck, face and clean your fingernails every day. Bathe your whole body twice a 
week at least and shampoo often. Attend to toilet at a regular time every day. Through 
right food and exercise, see that you eliminate freely. Brush your teeth thoroughly 


after breakfast and supper. Remove food from between teeth. Have all cavities in 
your teeth filled. Consult a dentist twice a year. Have a complete physical examin- 
ation each year. 

5. Sleep — Get a long sleep every night. Sleep on a porch or have windows open 
top and bottom. 

6. Exclusion — Keep fingers, pencils and everything likely to be unclean out of your 
mouth and nose. Drink no tea, coffee nor drinks containing injurious drugs. Do not 
smoke or use tobacco in any form. 

7. Right Thinking — Keep your mind clean. Be kind, cheerful and courageous. Be 
sincere and fair. 

8. Posture — Sit and stand straight. Lying down, be long. Hold reading matter 
not less than 12 inches from your eyes. Do not read lying down or facing the light. 
Have your eyesight tested. 

9. Helpfulness — Be helpful to others. Guard against accidents to others and to 
yourself. Whenever you cough or sneeze, turn your head aside and cover your mouth 
with your handkerchief. Spit only in a place safe for the health of all. Keep your 
clothes, shoes and books neat. 

16. Kindergarten 

For the kindergarten children the use of pictures illustrating the various health 
chores, with no reference to recording personal performance of the chores, is recom- 
mended. All children enjoy cutting out and mounting pictures. In the Story Hour 
the teacher may tell a story illustrating one or part of one of the health principles of 
the Crusaders' Code, and ask the children to look for pictures in the advertising sec- 
tions of the magazines, or elsewhere, to illustrate the particular "health chore" about 
which she has been telling them. The pictures may be brought to school and in the 
"seat work" periods they can be pasted and mounted in the cover paper books which 
the children themselves can make. These are the "health books," and each child should 
be encouraged to make his book as attractive as possible. See § 36. 

There is a wide variety of health chores contained in the Crusaders' Code. For 
example, under principle 1, four separate "chores" can be developed: 

1 — Be outdoors much of your time. 

2 — Have good fresh-air ventilation when you are indoors. 

3 — Breathe through your nose. 

A — Breathe deeply when playing. 

Similarly, under principle 4, the following cleanliness chores can be developed. 

1 — Wash your hands before eating. 

2 — Wash your hands before handling food. 

3 — Wash ears, neck and face. 

4 — Clean fingernails. 

5 — Take two baths a week. 

6 — Wash hair often. 

7 — Attend to toilet at a regular time each day. 

8 — Clean teeth in the morning and evening. 

In like manner a set of health chores can be developed from each of the nine 
health principles of the Crusaders' Code. 

The teacher knows best which health chores are most necessary for her particular 
group. For the kindergarten children it would seem best to have in mind some such 
simple set of "health chores" as these: 

The "Do" Chores 
1 — Clean hands. 
2 — Clean face, ears and neck. 
3 — Clean teeth. 
A — Drink milk. 

5 — Drink water between meals and before breakfast. 
6 — Sleep with windows open. 

7 — A bath at least once a week; twice, if possible. 
8 — Attention to toilet at a regular time each day. 

The "Don't" Chores 

1 — Don't put fingers, pencils or anything likely to be unclean into mouth or nose. 

2 — Don't drink tea or coffee. 

Advertisements of soap manufacturers offer excellent material for pictures illus- 
trating cleanliness. Advertisements of bathroom fixtures are also good for this subject. 
Where it is difficult to find good illustrations for some of the chores, simple drawings 
can be made by the children, in some instances. For the chore regarding regular 


attention to toilet, the picture of a clock, suggesting the value of regularity, may be 
used. Similar adaptations will occur to every teacher. 

Clean HANhS 

tA N t^/\r 


Vec>n£ s d a y 

THifP< s i>A r 

FR I b '^ y 

Uifivfv /y^tiitu 

17. First and Second Grades 

For the first and second grades a combination of the pictured chores of the kinder- 
garten and the printed chore records of the third and following grades can be made 
by the child under the teacher's direction. The method is indicated in the picture 

The name of the child should be written on his chore card. The checking of the 
chore cards can be done each day at a regular time. Under the direction of the teacher 
each child who has performed the chore puts an X on his chore card on the line for 
that day. If it is desirable to use the same chore card for two weeks, a vertical line 
can be drawn through the middle of the horizontal lines for the days of the week. 
§ 22 on Prompting and Inspection will be found helpful for suggestions on checking up 
the performance of the chores. 

After one chore has been thus recorded for two weeks (or other period set by the 
teacher), another chore should be added. After the faithful performance of two chores 
for a similar period, a third chore may be added. Additional chores in considerable 
variety may be added from time to time as the teacher may see fit, and those first taken 
up may be omitted in class work for awhile, to be reviewed later. 

18. Supplementary Devices 

A teacher in Ohio, to induce her children to drink milk and give up coffee and tea, 
drew a coffee-pot in one corner of the blackboard and in the opposite corner pasted 
a picture of a fine Jersey cow. Under the cow was printed, "We Drink Milk," and the 
names of the children who drank milk were written beneath. Each week the list of the 
children who drank milk increased until finally every child In the room had his or her 
name under the cow. Then with great ceremony the coffee pot was erased from the 

To teach cleanliness, another teacher told her children the story of the "Little Pig 
Brother" who had to go out and live with the pigs because he wouldn't keep clean. 
Then she had small kodak pictures taken of each child and pasted these on a large 
sheet. Little pigs were cut out of paper and when the pupil inspector (or teacher) 
found a child with dirty hands or some other mark of uncleanliness, that child had to 
go up and pin a little pig over his own picture. The children loved this game and soon 
cleanliness abounded in that room. 

(Above stories from the article of the Child Health Organization, "Playing 
the Health Game," in the May, 1922, issue of Visual Education.) 

In a Denver school the teacher drew an enlarged chore card on the blackboard 
with a space for each child's name. Each morning tiny sticks were placed on each 
child's desk, each stick representing a health chore. The children held the sticks in their 
hands while the teacher read the chores. For every chore a child had omitted, he laid 
a stick down on his desk. At the end of the prompting, each pupil had to tell how many 


sticks he had left in his hand and how many he had laid on his desk, thus combining a 
lesson in arithmetic with a lesson in health. 

19. Stories and Songs 

For the story hour there are a number of delightful health fairy stories (See 
Bibliography, § 64). "Billy Boy" is given below. 


Billy Boy had been playing in the field all morning. He was hungry and ran to 
the house for some sugar cookies. 

"Please, mother, I should like two of them to take with me to the pasture." 

"Take them, little son, but be sure to wash your hands before you touch them." 

Now Billy Boy usually minded his mother because he loved her dearly, but today 
he was in such a hurry that he forgot. 

He hurriedly took the two sugar cookies and ran back to the pasture, where he 
had piled high a fortress of leaves. He sat on the cushiony walls and contentedly 
ate the cookies. The warm sun shone on him and he nestled closer down in the leaves. 

His pet pussy came slowly down the path. 

"Come and sit with me, Gray Pussy, sing to me and purr a story for me." 

"Indeed, I shall not," said Gray Pussy. "Your face is dirty and you didn't wash 
your hands before you ate. Oh, no, no, I like to stay with little boys who wash their 
hands and faces." 

She walked away, jumped up on the fence and began to wash her face with her 

Gallop and trot, gallop and trot, came a little black pony down the path, 

"Why, little black pony, where have you been? Do stop and play with me." 

"Not today," said little black pony. 'It is dinner time and I am hungry, but I do 
want a drink before I eat. I always drink water before I eat if I can get it. Good 

And he galloped merrily along down the path. 

Just then a Scotch collie came marching along, 

"Stop and play with me. Collie Dog," said Billy Boy. 

"Not today," said Collie Dog. 

"There are so many things I must do to help others. Drive the cattle home, look 
after the sheep, keep the pigs away from the apple barrel your father had to leave in 
the orchard. No, Billy Boy, it is more fun to help others today. Some other time I 
will play with you." 

Bang! Billy Boy tumbled over backward and laughed. He had been asleep on 
his leaf fortress and the animals hadn't really talked to him at all. 

But as he went to the house he said: "Gray Pussy, I will wash my hands before 
I eat; Black Pony, I will remember to drink a glass of water before my meals, and 
Collin Dog, I want you to know I am going in right now and ask mother to let me 
help her." 

And he did. 

(Theresa Dansdill, Courtesy Iowa Tuberculosis Ass'n.) 

Songs. "The Yankee Doodle Song" and "Round and Round the Mulberry Bush" 
are two motion songs which lend themselves very satisfactorily to health chore drills. 
See Section 57. 

20. Games and Drills 

Drop the Handkerchief 

The players form a circle, the first choosing a good food and the next a bad food, 
and so on. A child outside the circle drops a handkerchief behind a good food, whose 
name is called out by the others, and runs for the vacant place. If caught, he must 
gc in the center of the circle. If he forgets and drops the handkerchief behind a bad 
food he must go inside at once. This game is a memory test. See also Games for 
Elementary Schools in Games for Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium, by 
Jessie H. Bancroft. MacMillan Co. 

Toothbrush drill (see Section 27). 

Handkerchief drill (see Section 28). 

Setting-up exercises (see Section 26). 


21. School Aid in Practice of Hygiene 

As required by law in some states, elementary schools are coming more and 
more to set aside time in which the teachers shall remind pupils of daily health chores 
and inspect them to test observance of duties. In one state the following activities 
are required: (1) daily hygienic inspection (taking about ten minutes), (2) a two- 


'minute drill in physical exercises at the begiiining ol a class, at least four times a day, 
(3) directed recreation (140 to 240 minutes per week), (4) formal gymnastics (60 
minutes per week, in more than one period), and (5) instruction in hygiene (at least 
two periods of 10 or 15 minutes each per week). 

The Crusade promotes a realization of the wisdom of allotting time thus definitely 
in school hours for practical health instruction and physical training. The Crusade 
chores supply a basis for hygienic inspection and are in harmony with all of the above 
hve requirements. The Crusade makes such requirements interesting both to teacher 
and pupil. 

22. Prompting and Inspecting 

Beginning with the first grade and continuing through the last grade in which 
health chores are taught, teachers should prompt pupils by questioning them on per- 
formance. The methods for both prompting and inspection are given on the Prompter 
and Hygienic Inspection Blank. This blank, a handy sheet 6 by 9^ inches, furnishes 
a ready record for a class or row of ten pupils over four weeks. (Checking spaces are 
provided for the five school days of each week. It serves in connection with any of 
the sets of chores, A, B, C, D or nutrition, and special lists used in the first two grades. 

The following paragraphs are printed on the blank: 

1. Prompting 

A. Question the pupils each day about their performance of the health chores, 
asking about each chore in turn, thus: — Question 1-10. How many of you yesterday 
and so far today have done chore 1? Chore 2? (Read each chore from 1 to 10 after 
this question). 

Question 11. (Read chore 11). How many of you have done chore 11 once this 
week? Twice? 

Question 12. How many of you checked the chores done yesterday (and Friday 
and Saturday*) on your chore records? 

B. Have the pupils who have done the chore in question hold up their hands. 
After the name of each pupil who does not hold up his hand, mark the serial number 
of the chore in the space for that day. In the same way mark "12" for failures on 
question 12. 

*To be included in question 12 on Monday. 

2. Inspection 

NOTE: Any of the following three methods of inspection are recommended: 1. The teacher stands by a 
window and has the pupils march by her in single file ; 2. The pupils stand in line, and the inspector passes in 
review; 3. The pupils sit and the inspector passes up and down the aisle. 

A. Conduct the hygienic inspection after the questioning. 

B. Enter the number of any chore which the inspection shows the pupil has 
failed to perform to the teacher's satisfaction, in the space for that day (unless already 

C. Procedure 

1. Call the class to attention. 

2. Have the pupils thrust up their sleeves and place their hands upon the 
desk, palms down. 

Daily Inspection of Chore Perform.ance 


3. Inspect hands for (a) cleanliness, (b) rash, (c) nails (note dirt and biting). 

4. Inspect leeth. Have the children draw their lips well apart to display the teeth. 

5. Observe the face, ears, neck and scalp. Have the child draw his collar slightly 
away from his neck, turn his head to one side, then to the other. 

6. Inspect shoes for (a) neatness, (b) correct shape, (c) right ske. 

7. Speak privately to the child if there arises anything which might cause em- 

8. Refer the child to school nurse or physician if there are disease symptoms. 


For the more advanced classes daily hygienic inspection may not be required, but 
prompting on the chores, through questioning, should be maintained. 

For a small class the teacher alone asks the question, makes inspection and enters 
the record on this blank. For a large class she may appoint a pupil to inspect each 
one or two rows and to record chore omissions. In classes organized as Health 
Crusade Clubs, the officers do the inspecting and recording. Competitions between 
rows or teams for the performance of the most chores are useful. 

23. Symptoms of Illness 

Cases of contagion discovered by inspection should be referred for exclusion to 
the principal, school physician or nurse. Beside rash and pediculosis, watch should 
be maintained for eye discharge and the early signs of general illness. When un- 
hygienic conditions are discovered the pupil may be spoken to privately after class 
and embarrassment avoided. Children who show evidences of extreme neglect should 
be referred to the school nurse or a public health nurse for home visits. In schools 
that have the service of a physician and nurse, their arrival at school should be 
announced to each teacher and all contagious or suspicious cases should be sent to 
the doctor's office, taking a reference slip from the teacher. Any deviation from the 
normal in a previously healthy child should be a warning to the teacher. 

24. List of Symptoms 

The beginning of most children's diseases shows one or more of the following 
symptoms. Depending upon the severity of the symptoms, the pupil should be sepa- 
rated from others and watched, sent to the doctor or nurse, or sent home to the 
parents with a written explanation and recommendation that the family physician be 

Cough. (Children who sneeze or cough should be taken from their regular seats 
and isolated. This is most important, for many diseases are spread by sneezing and 

Sore throat or hoarseness. Running nose. Cheeks flushed. Fever. Chills. Pallor. 
Vomiting. Headache. Backache. Pain, especially in the abdomen or chest. Erup- 
tions, rash, itching, irritation of the skin. 

Red eyes, with or without discharge, especially if accompanied by any of the 
following symptoms of defective vision: scowling, squinting, headache, holding reading 
matter at an unusual distance from the eyes. 

Running ears and deafness. Swelling in the neck, particularly if in the region of 
the ear. Shortness of breath. Chronic drowsiness (usually indicates poor ventilation 
or high temperature in the school room). Chronic restlessness. Frequent requests 
to leave the room. 

Malnutrition, loss of weight, mouth breathing, decayed teeth, irritability and dis- 
inclination to study or play are genera) symptoms indicating a condition favorable 
to disease. 

25. Window, Thermometer and Sanitary Inspectors 

The appointment of window and thermometer inspectors promotes class hygiene. 
Window inspectors open the windows freely before the two-minute drills or at the 
end of each class session on days when the windows are largely closed on account of 
cold, and close the windows immediately before studies are resumed, to the position 
at which a temperature of 68 dc^-rees may be maintained. The duty of the thermometer 
inspector, when artificial heat is used or the windows are not fully open, is to record 
the tem.perature periodically morning and afternoon. When more than 68 degrees is 
registered he is to notify the teacher promptly and his record should be handed to 
her once a week. 

The sanitary inspector reports to the teacher any unhealthful conditions found 
about the school during the week, such as unsanitary outhouses or lavatories, bad air, 
untidy halls, etc. The teacher may ask him to report to the class and have remedial 
measures discussed. Pupils can be made to feel it an honor to serve as inspectors of 
either kind. New ones should be appointed once a fortnight or at regular intervals. 

26. Setting-Up Exercises: Two-Minute Drill 

For grades 3 to 8. 


At the sound of the bell, inspectors should open windows without command. 
Coats and sweaters should be removed. 

Class: Stand! (Face windows at once without command.) 

1. Breathing. Four times. 

In! Six counts for inhalation. 
Out! Four counts for exhalation. 
Right (left): Face! 

2. Stretching. Four times. (This exercise must be done to response commands, 

using the cues indicated.) 
Bend! Bend the trunk forward, touching hands to toes. 
Shoulders! Stand erect, touching hands at sides of shoulders in passing to 

next position. 
Stretch! Stretch the arms upward, palms toward each other. Do not bend 

Higher! Make an effort to stretch higher. 

Down! Turn hands and bring arms sideways downward quickly, without 
noise. If the room is too crowded for the sideways downward movement, 

the arms may be brought down, close to the body. 

3. Knee bending. Eight times. (Thumbs locked behind without command. This 

exercise should be taught, using the cues indicated. When it is thoroughly 

learned, it may be done to rhythmic commands.) 
Down! Bend the knees deeply. 
Up! Stretch the knees quickly. 
Right (left): Face! 

4. Breathing. Four times. 

In! Six counts for inhalation. 
Out! Four counts for exhalation. 

Class: Sit. —From Physical Training Syllabus, New York. 

Teachers will find directions for other forms of physical exercise for a class in 
some of the textbooks. The National Association will refer inquiries to publications 
on gymnastic exercises, athletic drills, supervised play and games, in addition to the 
books named in this manual. (See Bibliography §64.) 

27. Toothbrush Drill 

On account of lack of home instruction in the care of teeth, a toothbrush drill 
should be conducted in elementary classes at least once a month or as often as is 
necessary, until all the pupils are taught thoroughly. For the drill each child is requested 
to bring his brush wrapped in plain paper and remaining wrapped until the drill. If 
there are not cups for all the children, two or three provided with cups, water, denti- 
frice and a basin should demonstrate. The class should follow them or the teacher 
in pantomime. The cup, real or imaginary, is held in the left hand and the brush in 
the right. If a brush is lacking the child should go through the motions with his 
index finger outside his mouth. The brush should not be given very hard pressure. 
No effort should be spared to secure brushes or cups for all pupils. 

Attention! (All in line, elbows close to side.) 

1. Ready — Water. 

2. Outside surfaces (Brush inserted under cheek. Gums, as well as teeth, to be 

brushed not too hard.) 

a. "Upstairs" 

Left side. Down strokes. 1 to 10. 
Right side. Down strokes. 1 to 10. 
Front. Down strokes. 1 to 10. Water. 

b. "Downstairs" 

Left side. Up strokes. 1 to 10. 

Right side. Up strokes. 1 to 10. 

Front. Up strokes. 1 to 10. Water. 

The brushing of the upstairs and downstairs outside surface may be combined in 

a circular motion. 
3. Inside surfaces. First (a) "upstairs" and then (b) "downstairs." 

Left side. In and out motion. 1 to 10. 

Right side. In and out motion. 1 to 10. 

Front. In and out motion. 1 to 10. Water. 

4. Chewing surfaces. 

a. "Upstairs" 

Left. Scrubbing motion. 1 to 10. 

Right. Scrubbing motion. 1 to 10. Water. 

b. "Downstairs" 

Left. Scrubbing motion. 1 to 10. 

Right. Scrubbing motion, 1 to 10. Water. 


5. Empty cups and refill them. 

6. Rinse the mouth. 

7. Rinse the brush, shake off water, wrap it to take home. 

Teeth should be brushed fully two minutes. It is important to work the bristles 
in between the teeth as far as possible. Dental floss used once a day, with care not to 
pull the gums back, will clean between teeth where bristles will not reach. A mouth 
wash can be made by adding to a pint of boiled water one teaspoonful of common 
salt and one tablespoonful of limewater. Pupils should be taught to consult a dentist 
every six months or oftener, to prevent trouble with teeth and resultant poor health. 

28. Handkerchief Drill 

The use of the handkerchief plays so important a part in the prevention of disease 
that a drill should be conducted from time to time in the beginning grades. Many 
physicians hold that blowing the nose wrongly is the chief cause of deafness. 

The important points to remember are: 

1. Must have a clean handkerchief each day. 

2. Keep it in pocket when not in use. 

3. Cover nose and mouth with handkerchief when coughing or sneezing. 

4. Use handkerchief in blowing the nose. 
Procedure to be followed in giving the drill: 

1. Each pupil displays a clean handkerchief. 

2. Folds it loosely in hand. 

3. Blows one nostril gently with mouth slightly open, closing the opposite 
nostril — is never to blow both nostrils at the same time. 

4. Returns handkerchief to pocket after folding the soiled side in. 

This drill is best conducted in the game spirit and may be made a matter of 
routine given twice daily in the first term, at the opening of the morning and afternoon 
sessions. The teacher or pupil inspectors should inspect the handkerchiefs at the 
beginning of the drill. 

— Adapted from the Cleveland School of Education. 

29. Tournaments 

The Modern Health Crusade is planned to interest children in health. Group 
contests are one of the best means — contests in the performance of the most chores 
on the average for the group are effective between rows, classes, individual schools 
and the collective school of counties and states. Crusade tournaments are such 




















A Rural School Winner ix National Tournament 

J^\3€^t Hevrlya „ 

OR G"^* 




Record of Health Chores- 


1. 1 was weig 

2. Besides 
and eve 
lunches, a 

3. I ate only 
at least a 

4. 1 drank 
each mea 

5. I went t 

6. I was in be 

7. I rested, 
utes, both 
as directed. 

8. 1 played 
for the tim 

9. I washed m 

10, I brushed 
and after 

n. I took a fu 
that is chec 

Total number 


I certify on my honor that I did every chore marked 
on the day indicated, and the total number written on 
this record for each week. 

I believe that the boy or girl whose name is vvritten 
• oove did the number of health chores indicated'. 

if boy or girl) • ^ 

^^\Sigiuture of boy or girl) • O ■ 

(Signature of parent or guardian) 

I approve the above record of chores done. This pupil was examined by a physician before the first week of 
the record, and the report was considered in instructions given. The pupil also submitted in advance a statement 
of his diet for two consecutive days, and of the manner in which he spent the hours of the day. 

^c**..4w^. A-*f4-ik^ (kM^...^4:^..4.'^ 
(Signature by tefafch^nurj* pr phyiician) (School) 

(Post OfRce Address) 




fid Chart for Weight Lines 


VcVorV^rvj iCL^ ro .A^^*A>^ 

W )f 


Statements To Be Filled in By Your Teacher and Shown To Your Parents ^^ 

(a) The average weight for your height and age isrjftlbs. (b) Your weight was. G^lbs. on. r^. f?.-. ^.. 

192 ir showing that you were.!], .lbs. or.l^.% under average weight, (c) The increase in weight expected of 

a person of your age and height who is underweight is more than S.'.Tlf'lhs. for ten weeks. — (See Table C.) 

Bring this record from home on the day when you are to be weighed each week, in order to have your weight- 
line drawn. 

•In this column the teacher or nurse is to write consecutive numbers in the spaces from the bottom to the top, ranging: from 3 
pounds below the child's weight to 10 pounds above it. The weight should be taken within- two weeks before he begins the chore*. 
Each number is written immediately above the base (bottom) line of its space. This base line indicates whole pounds: the firit 
spur, above- the base line in each space indicates one-quarter pound idditional; the second -spur, one-half pound additionaJ; and the third 
spur, three-quarters of a pound additional. 


Qodern )5:ealth Qrusade 

Holl of 



Date Contest Began iSi^-'^t&^^lj^ 

contests between individual schools or classes over a fixed number of consecutive 

There are two National Tournaments in a school year, each lasting over fifteen 
consecutive weeks. Every elementary school class with an enrolment of not less 
than seven pupils is eligible to compete. Contestants are grouped in eleven divisions 
so that the younger pupils need not compete with the older nor the larger classes 
with the smaller. Divisions 1 and 2 are ungraded schools, containing less than nine- 
teen pupils and those containing nineteen or more pupils. Divisions 3 to 11 are classes 
grouped in grades and containing less than 26 or more than 25. Beautiful banners 
and pennants are awarded as prizes and extensive publicity is accorded. The first 
tournament occurs between the first Sunday in September and the last Saturday in 
February: the second tournament, between the first Sunday in January and the second 
Saturday in June. Within these dates the teacher submits the record of her pupils' 
performance of chores over whatever period of fifteen weeks she chooses. 

The winners in the tournament are determined by Crusade credits. The individual 
pupil earns a credit of 1 for each week in which he has a record of performing 54 or 
more chores, including a bath. The highest number of credits a pupil can have is 15, 
1 for each of the 15 weeks. The credits of the class are the average credits of the 

A winner in any division of either tournament is the class or ungraded school 
earning the largest number of credits in the 15 weeks. All contestants earning class 
credits of 15 are awarded pennants. A banner is awarded to the winning contestant 
in each division whose record shows the greatest number of chores performed during 
the 15 weeks. 

The rules for the tournaments are given in the "Guide to Tournaments and Silver 
Cup Contests." The circular and the required report form will be sent free to any 
teacher applying. The teacher should keep all the pupils' chore records for use in 
rendering the report for the tournament. The reports must be sent in before March 
14 for the first tournament and before June 30 for the second tournament and cup 

30. Inter-State and Inter-City Contests 

In contesting in the National Tournament each school contributes to the success 
of its state in the Inter-State Cup Contest. The silver cup, a beautiful and costly 
trophy, donated to the National Tuberculosis Association, is awarded to the schools 
of the state in which the required number of health chores are performed for 15 weeks 
by the most children, in ratio to school enrolment. The performance of 54 or more 
health chores in each week is required of each child. The 15 weeks need not be con- 
secutive, but must be included within the school year from September to June. This 
contest is conducted annually. The cup is awarded for one year, but becomes the 
permanent property of the state in which it is won three times. The cup is held in 
custody for the schools in the winning state by the state health association or by the 
state department of education. The cup has been won by Iowa and Idaho. 

A similar contest is held between cities having a population of 100,000 or more, 
and the trophy, another beautiful cup, is awarded under like conditions. It has been 
won by Washington, D. C. 

31. Roll of Health Knighthood 

The Roll is an attractive wall chart. It is of great value in stimulating pupils to 
fidelity in contests. The Crusade credits earned by each pupil towardu the class 


credits are entered in columns for each school month and are posted before the class. 
For other features see p. 5. 

32. Community Contests 

As the chores are hygienic duties that should be observed by every adult, great 
interest may be aroused and great good accomplished by a competition to enlist the 
most Crusaders both of school and other ages within a community. The pupils of 
a class or school are divided for the contest into two groups substantially equal in 
number, range of age, and influence. A reward is offered to the side that shall enlist 
most persons who perform 54 or more chores each week and check them on the chore 
records for fixed periods such as 5, 10, or 15 weeks. Pupils may be given chore 
records of the most advanced form, D, to distribute to adults. The number of hours 
required to spend in bed may be reduced to eight for adults. 

33. Knighting Crusaders 

The award of titles and presentation of badges should be carried out with cere- 
mony. Crusade health teachings are probably imprinted for life on the minds of boys 
and girls who are formally dubbed knights and knights banneret. The event should 
be made an educational entertainment to which the public is invited. The newspapers 
should be given the story and the names of the knights. The ceremony (accolade) 
given below is a piece of pageantry readily made impressive to participants and 
spectators alike. 

For the accolade the candidates are assembled in one room or in an open space 
out of doors. If they represent more than one class they should be grouped by classes. 
The schoolmates of the candidates should be assembled to witness the ceremony, but 
should be kept in a separate group. 

Inter-City Cup, Won by Washington, D. C, Schools, and Presented 
BY President Harding 


The ceremony is conducted by the principal (Crusade grand master) and teacher^ 
(Crusade masters). If the number of candidates is small, the sword blows should 
be given to each one. But one, two or three children from each class may be chosen 
to represent all the candidates. If a sword is lacking, a national flag, furled on its 
staff, may be used for the blows. 

If there is but one class or ungraded school, the teacher, in the absence of the 
principal, may take his part, while chosen pupils give the response for the Crusade 

34. Accolade 

1. Singing of a Modern Health Crusade song. 

2. The grand master occupies the center of the stage, carrying a sword. Between 
the grand master and the candidate stand the Crusade masters, each facing partly 
toward the grand master and partly toward her group. 

GRAND MASTER: Hail! Whom bring you here? 

FIRST CRUSADE MASTER: True and loyal workers, sir; candidates for 

GRAND MASTER: And you, my sister, who are these who follow you with 
such good will? 

SECOND CRUSADE MASTER: True and loyal workers, sir; candidates for 

(The grand master makes similar inquiries of any other Crusade masters, who 
reply in turn.) 

GRAND MASTER (addressing the candidates): What is the quest which you 
will seek if created knights? 

CRUSADE MASTER OR CANDIDATES (in unison): Our quest is happiness, 
both for others and ourselves. 

GRAND MASTER: In truth you are ambitious. Have you brought silver and 
gold to exchange for your precious boon? 

FIRST CRUSADE MASTER: Nay, nay, sir. Silver and gold have we not. 
We know that happiness is not purchased with silver and gold. 

GRAND MASTER: You have well said. What, then, have you with which you 
hope to obtain happiness? 

FIRST CRUSADE MASTER: Three things we bring: clean bodies, clean 
minds and kind hearts. 

GRAND MASTER (to other Crusade masters): And you? 

the same, sir: clean bodies, clean minds and kind hearts. 

GRAND MASTER: Now indeed I do perceive that you bring offerings more 
worthy than silver, gold or precious stones. A kind heart cannot live in the same 
body with a foul mind, nor can kind hearts and clean minds comfortably dwell in any 
but clean bodies. Squires, you are already on the way to happiness. Follow the 
straight and narrow path of Modern Health Crusaders. Be on your guard against 
that demon of unhappiness — disease. If you observe the Crusaders' rules of health 
you will rob this demon of many of his terrors. 

Tell me now, my sisters, are you satisfied that these candidates have each faith- 
fully performed their health chores and kept their records for the time required for 

CRUSADE MASTERS (in turn): We are. 
GRAND MASTER: Give heed, my true and loyal workers, and receive the investi- 
ture of the order. 

(The representatives of each group in turn come forward on signal by the grand 
master and kneel on one knee or stand with bowed head before him. The grand 
master then lightly taps each representative with the flat of his sword once'on ithe 
right shoulder.) 

GRAND MASTER: Squire of the Modern Health Crusade, by the authority of 
the (name of state) Legion of Modern Health Crusaders, I do now create each pne 
of you a Knight Crusader and invest you with the honors of the order. May you gi^ow 
in the knowledge of health and be always found fighting our common enemy, Disease. 

(The Crusade masters now come forward one at a time and receive from jthe 
grand master the knights' badges. The representatives return with them to their 

3. When the degree has been conferred upon the last group, all again sing a 
modern Health Crusade song. The Crusade masters afterward distribute the badges. 


- The ceremony for knights banneret and for knights banneret constant is the 
same as for knights, with the following changes. The grand master addresses the 
candidates as "sir knights" instead of "squires." The sword blows are two, one on 
each shoulder. 


KxiGHTixr; Crusaders, 24th Street School, Denver 

To add to the occasion, a Modern Health Crusade flag may be unfurled after the 
title has been conferred on the knights banneret. The grand master summons them 
to come forward, saying, "Arise, chevaliers of health, to receive your standard." 

35. Costumes 

The knighting ceremony will be heightened by the use of white capes and paper 
helmets. They are serviceable in "King Good Health Wins" and other playlets. The 

capes are circular-shaped, of muslin, 
painted with health crosses. Scarlet bloom- 
ers and white hose go well with the capes. 
The pattern for a Crusader's helmet, to 
be_ used on all occasions when the health 
drive is featured, is very simple and can 
easily be made in a seat-work period. The 
material is stiff paper, preferably gray, put 
together with McGill fasteners (spreading 
strips of brass). No paste is needed. The 
following dimensions make a helmet of 
correct size for the average intermediate 
grade child: helmet, 22 by 11 inches; visor, 
16 by 5^; chin strap, WA by 2^^. After the 
helmet is cut and put together, insignia 
may be painted on in red. 







36. Health Books 

During several of the early years of the child's schooling, "health books" will prove 
valuable aids to Crusade courses. They are loose-leaf books made by the child. They 
are commonly made of sheets approximately 9 by 12 inches bound together at one end 
by two McGill fasteners or by cord. The paper should be thick and tough, preferably 
of a bright color. 

The child's name and "Health Book" should be printed with pen and ink on the 
cover, some idealistic pictures like a knight, cut out from a magazine, may be pasted 
on the cover. Some of the inside pages should be of the pictorial scrap-book type. 
Magazine pictures illustrating chores or the "project" picture chore records used in 
the first and second grades (see § 17) are pasted on the pages. Pictures illustrating 
wholesome food may be clipped from magazines or seed catalogues or the labels of 
cans and a balanced dietary may be shown in a way to make the child remember it. 

The squire's certificate is a valuable insert for the health book. One of the printed 
chore records on which the child has recorded his performance may be pasted in the 
health book as a souvenir. When the chore record is badly worn or is to be retained 
by the teacher for her tournament report the child copies his original checkings on a 
second chore-record blank. Health posters and drawings made by the child should 
be kept in his health book: so also compositions that meet with the teacher's com- 


A competition to produce the best health book is efifective. Both appearance and 
soundness of health teachings should be considered. 

For Poster Contests, Playlets, Clubs and other aids, see § 51 to § 61. 


37. The Round Table of the Modern Health Crusade 

The activities recommended for an advanced course under the Crusade system are 
grouped in the program of the Round Table. The work and tests required to become 
a Knight of the Round Table are especially fitted to children of the higher grammar 
grades and high school. A child must have become a Crusader of the rank of Knight 
Banneret through the chores of the general course, before he can become a Knight of 
the Round Table. 

Through the re-creation of the Round Table, a subject that has captured the in- 
terest of children for centuries past, the unique interest of the Crusade is extended for 
children from the practice of the health chores to the study of hygiene, the acquisition 
of physical and athletic fitness in various ways, and participation in community sani- 
tation work. The Round Table gives the pupil a motive to work in these lines, thus 
lightening the task of the teacher. It entails no organization obligations. The work 
and examinations of the Round Table are already employed in physical education work 
in thousands of schools to sufficient extent to "earn seats at the Round Table." Mem- 
bership in the order of the Round Table affords the highest distinction in health chiv- 
alry. A Knight Banneret qualifying for the Round Table has a membership for three 
years, approximately. It terminates December 31st in the third school year following 
the school year in which the pupil earned his or her seat. The membership of a Knight 
Banneret Constant in the Round Table is, however, permanent. He has the supreme 
title of health chivalry. Knight Constant of the Round Table. Crusaders who have the 
three-year membership in the Round Table become Knights Constant of the Round 
Table on completion of the health chores for four years as required to become Knights 
Banneret Constant. 

A certificate of membership in the Order is awarded by the National Tuberculosis 
Association. It is issued to each qualifying Crusader by the association for his state 
or the state superintendent of schools. Every Knight of the Round Table is likewise 
entitled to wear the beautiful badge of the Order. Under manufacturing arrangements 
made by the National Tuberculosis Asociation, the badge may be purchased at low 
cost (30c.) by the knight or by the local organization promoting Crusade work. An 
accolade for the investiture is given in § 50. 

38. Qualifications for Seats 

All Modern Health Crusaders with rank as high as Knight Banneret are eligible to 
the Round Table. The pupil secures a "seat" by earning 100 or more points through 
some of the following qualifications. They represent a possible 300 points. 

1. Obtaining a school mark of 85% or more in a course in hygiene of the standard 
described below. 20 to 30 points. 

2. Passing the athletic tests described. 20 to 30 points. 

3. Having a weight approximating or reaching the standard for height and age. 
10 to 30 points. 

4. Passing the tests described for correct posture. 20 to 30 points. 

5. Passing physical examinations as described. 5 to 50 points. 

6. Passing the examination required for the Certificate of First Aid issued by the 
American Red Cross. 30 points. 

7. Passing the tests in swimming required by the American Red Cross for Junior 
Life-saving Crews. 10 to 30 points. 

8. Scouting and Camp Fire Girls. 10 to 30 points. 

9. Work in a community sanitation program, in accordance with §49. 5 to 40 

39. Tests 

The work, tests or examinations through which the 100 points are earned must 
all be carried out within one and the same year (school or calendar). Tests should 
be made as early as possible in the school year so that in case of failure the pupil may 
have as long as possible after learning his defects to remove them and make a second 

The candidate for the Round Table who has not already become Knight Banneret 
may do the chores necessary to become Knight Banneret during the year in which he 
meets the other Round Table requirements. 

The smallest number of points specified above for each test is the minimum num- 
ber that may be credited. No points are credited for partial success in tests insufficient 
for the minimum number of points. 


In schools having a physician, nurse or physical training teacher, some or all of the 
tests should be made by them. In their absence, the tests for enough qualifications for 
the Round Table may be conducted by the teacher alone, in a school with a hygiene 

40. Reports 

When a candidate is entitled to a seat and certificate, a report on the points earned, 
including dates of the tests, is to be sent by his teacher or principal to the association 
for his state listed on the back page of this manual or to the state superintendent. The 
report should be sent in as soon as the candidate has earned the required points, so 
that he may be promptly admitted to the Round Table without waiting until other 
candidates may qualify. 

The report blank is published by the National Tuberculosis Association. 

4L Hygiene Course 

The course in hygiene must require at least 20 minutes of class instruction per week 
for 30 weeks in one school year, or proportionately more minutes for a less number of 
weeks. The course must be based on up-to-date textbooks in hygiene or in hygiene and 
physiology in combination, with the emphasis placed on hygienic practice and habit 
and not on physiological information. The number of points earned by a candidate 
for the Round Table is determined by his marks, thus: 

For a mark of 95 or more (basis 100) 30 

For a mark of 90 but not 95 25 

For a mark of 85 but not 90 20 

For a mark of less than 85 

42. Athletic Tests 

These tests are the Athletic Badge Tests standardized by the Playground and 
Recreation Association of America (1 Madison Ave., New York City). 

For Boys. 
First test: Pull up (chinning) 4 times _ 20 points 

Standing broad jump 5 ft. 9 in. 

60-yard dash 8-3/5 seconds 

Second test: Pull up (chinning) 6 times 25 points 

Standing broad jump 6 ft. 6 in. 

60-yard dash 8 seconds 

Or 100-yard dash 14 seconds 

Third test: Pull up (chinning) 9 times _ 30 points 

Running high jump 4 ft. 4 in. 

220-yard run 28 seconds 

First test: 

Second test: 

Third test: 

For Girls. 

All-up Indian club race 30 seconds 20 points 

Or potato race 42 seconds 

Basket-ball goal throwing 2 goals, 6 trials 

Balancing 24 ft.. 2 trials 

All-up Indian club race 28 seconds 25 pomts 

Or potato race 39 seconds 

Basket-ball goal throwing 3 goals, 6 trials 

Balancing (bean bag or book on head) 24 t 2 t aj^ 3^ ^^^,^ 

Running and catching j" seconas 

Throwing for distance, basket-ball 42 ft. 

Or volley-ball *!-•=.•, 

Volley-ball serving 3 in 5 trials 


There are no weight nor age limits in these tests. They are suitable for normal 
children from 11 years upward. It is necessary to qualify at one time in all three events 
in any one test in order to win the points for the Round Table or the badges of the 
Playground and Recreation Association. The points won in only one of the three 
tests can be counted for the Round Table: 30 is the maximum number. For rules and 
instructions secure the booklets, "Athletic Badge Test," for boys and for girls, respec- 
tively, sent postpaid for 5 cents each by the Playground Association. The' badges, 
in bronze, make beautiful prizes. They are made in three classes, corresponding to 
the three tests, as illustrated on the preceding page. 

43. Correct Weight 

One of the qualifications desired in a candidate for the Round Table is a weight 
consistent with physical fitness. Malnutrition, exceedingly common among school 
children, constitutes a serious menace to health. Excessive overweight is likewise 
conducive to disease. The following tables, A and B, give standard weights for height 
and age in school children. Children weighing as much as 10 per cent, below standard, 
and in many instances 7 per cent., may be considered probably malnourished. Table C 
gives the standard weights for older persons, as determined by the experience of a 
great life insurance company. 

Both age and height should be considered in determining whether a person's weight 
is correct. For growing children, height measured at six-month intervals, preferably 
in September and March, should be considered. See § 11, Weighing and Physical Ex- 

In determining points for the Round Table standard weight or a weight within the- 
"normal zone," namely: from less than 10% below to less than 20% above standard, 
is credited with 30 points, except during the first two months of the school year. 
Weights showing greater variation from normal are credited in accordance with Table 
D below. 

Here is an example. Jane Smith weighs 53 pounds in April and is 52 inches tall. 
On her last birthday in September she was nine years old. April is seven months after 
September and five months before September. Hence her age next September, her 
nearest birthday, is considered ten years. Looking down the column for ten years 
until the figure in line with the height, 52 inches, in the first column is reached, her 
normal weight is found to be 65. Finding the difference between 65 and 53, we have 12 
pounds underweight. By dividing 65 into 12.00 we find that 12 is 18.4 per cent, of 65. 
This means that Jane comes in Class C in Table D and can be credited with only 
5 points. 


Table A 







Prepared by 

Dr. Thomas 

D. Wood. 















































































— [ ' 




























































• -• isa 
















— - 


- 138 
















Age Ounces 









About what a 


to 8 6 14 to 16 16 

boy should gain 


to 12 8 16 to 18 8 


1 mon 








Table B 






Prepared by 

Dr. Thomas 

D. Wood. 

































































, .. 138 


Feet. In. 






About what a 
girl should gain 
each month 

Age Ounces 

5 to 8 6 

8 to 11 8 

11 to 14 12 

Table C 

Age Ounces 
14 to 16 8 

16 to 18 4 


Weights According to Age Periods 













Table D 

Class. Points 

A Less than 10% 25 

B 10% but less than 15% 15 

C 15% but less than 20% 5 

D 20% or more 

Class. Points. 

E Less than 20% 25 

F 20% but less than 25% 15 

G 25% or more 

Children who weigh 15% or more below standard weight and bring their weight up 
thereafter during the same school or calendar year to less than 10% below standard 
may be credited with 30 points. 

The best weight (i. e., nearest to standard) shown at any weighing during the 
school year through which the Crusader is enrolled, except during the first two months, 
may be considered for the Round Table. The practice of weighing should begin the 
first of the school year so that the child and his parents, informed of a wide departure 
from standard weight, may have as much time as possible during the period for which 
the child is enrolled as a Crusader to acquire proper weight through correction of 
physical defects, proper diet and fidelity to the health chores. It is recommended that 


school children be weighed monthly, on the same day of each month. The national 
slogan, "A scale in every school," should be made effective. Where weighing must be 
done out of school the teacher may secure the assistance of the most responsible pupils 
in weighing the others on a merchant's scales. 

Inasmuch as some underweight children are so circumstanced or constituted that 
they cannot reach standard weight v/ithin a school year, the following supplementary 
method of earning credits for the Order of the Round Table has been adopted. The 
underweight boy or girl who makes an average monthly gain equal to the amount 
shown for his age in Table E below for a period of six consecutive months, in each of 
which he is weighed, may be credited with 25 points, although his best weight may give 
him many less points under Table D. The pupil may be given credits under either of 
the two methods, according to Table D or Table E, but not under both methods. 

Table E— Prepared by Dr. L. Emmett Holt 

Approximate Monthly Gain in Weight. 
Age. Gain. 

5 to 8 years 6 ounces 

8 to 12 years 8 ounces 

13 to 16 years 16 ounces 

16 to 18 years 8 ounces 

S to 8 



years 6 ounces 

8 to 11 years 8 ounces 

11 to 14 years 12 ounces 

14 to 16 years 8 ounces 

16 to 18 years 4 ounces 

The monthly weights of the pupils may be conveniently recorded on the Roll of 
Health Knighthood and the report form for the Round Table. 

The child's weight as an index of his health should be reported to his parents peri- 
odically. The blanks on each Crusade chore record serve the teacher for making such 

A series of publications on health, with emphasis on nutrition work in schools, 
may be secured from the Child Health Organization, 370 Seventh Ave., New York, 
as follows: 

"Cho-Cho and the Health Fairy," 15c. each. "Rhymes of Cho-Cho's Grandma," 20c. each. 

"Child Health Alphabet," 10c. each. "Standards of Nutrition and Growth (Holt), $11.00 
"Rosy Cheeks and Strong Heart" (Andress), 20c. per 100. 

each. "The Nutrition Class," 15c. each. 




The seriously malnourished child should not take as much exercise as the normal. 
Athletics should not be attempted until weight is built up. Lunches of milk or other 
plain nourishing food should be given, both mid-morning and mid-afternoon. They 
should be followed by rest for more than 20 minutes in the morning and in the after- 
noon. See § 10 and the circular "Instruction to Teachers and Nutrition Workers." 

Instructions will be furnished to teachers applying to the Elizabeth McCormick 
Memorial Fund, 848 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 

44. Correct Posture 

The tests required for the fourth qualification are those standardized by the Amer- 
ican Posture League and required for the award of its badges. Posture is judged ac- 
cording to a vertical line test, as illustrated on the League's wall charts, which posture 
is to be held during the triple test for endurance in posture. 

The triple test consists of judging the posture in (1) standing, (2) marching for at 
least three minutes, (3) corrective exercises, including stretching the arms forward and 
upward. A candidate must hold good posture throughout all three parts of this test 
taken in rapid succession, to be considered as passing the triple test. 

A candidate who passes the triple test once a month for three consecutive months 
earns 20 points for admission to the Round Table and is eligible for the gilt pin of the 
American Posture League. A candidate who (1) passes the triple test once a month 
for five consecutive months and has a rating of "A" or "Excellent" for habitual good 
posture, or (2) having previously earned the 20 points, passes the triple test for four 
additional consecutive months and has a rating of "A" for habitual good posture earns 
30 points and is eligible for the silver pin. 

The A. P. L. pins make badges for the holder to be proud of. To secure the pins 
a list of the candidates who have passed the test must be sent to the American Posture 
League, 1 Madison Ave., New York, with the following certification, accompanied by 
remittance. Gilt pins are 20 cents and silver pins 25 cents each. 

"The above-named candidates have successfully passed the test pre- 
scribed for the gilt/silver Good Posture Pin of the American Posture 
League. I hereby apply for pins for them and will be responsible for these 
pins being given only to the individuals named herein." 

(Signed) Instructor 



The wall charts of the American Posture League are desirable for every school- 
room. They are published with pictures either of a boy, like the illustration given 
here, or of a girl. They may be purchased of the American Posture League. Apply 
to the League for particulars on their sitting posture charts and other publications. 

45. Physical Examination 

Points are credited to the candidate for traits of physical fitness, disclosed by ex- 
amination, as enumerated below. Regardless of the Round Table, every pupil should be 
thoroughly examined by a school physician once and preferably twice during the 
school year. A dentist also should examine him once a year and preferably every six 
months. If a school does not have the services of a physician, a schooj nurse or any 
trained nurse can, for the purpose of the Round Table, give the pupil the examination 
specified below, except as to his heart, lungs and teeth. Following the instructions in 
some textbooks on hygiene and physiology and by the use of the Snellen test card 
and directions for testing eyesight, the teacher, unassisted, can test the pupil's hearing, 
sight and shoeing. Unless the candidate fully earns the number of points specified for 
one of the following tests, in compliance with all conditions, he is credited with no 
points on that test. 

Teeth, 10 points. If the candidate's teeth are sound, not requiring a dentist's ser- 
vices, he is credited 10 points. He must present a written statement from a dentist, or 
the dentist must report directly to the teacher, that his teeth have been examined dur- 
ing the current calendar or school year, and either that they did not need filling, ex- 
traction or operation, or that such treatment has been completely administered and 
that the gums are healthy. 

Nose and throat, 10 points. If the candidate habitually breathes through his nose 
with his mouth shut and his nose and throat do not need a physician's services, he is 


credited 10 points. The teacher must receive a written or oral report from a licensed 
physician or registered nurse, stating that he has examined the pupil's throat within 
the current year and either that there is no condition of adenoids or tonsils or obstruc- 
tion making operation or treatment by physician or surgeon advisable, or that such 
condition has been corrected. If a physician is not available, the opinion of a registered 
nurse who has made an examination may be accepted. 

Eyes, 5 points. Every school child's eyes should be tested for nearsightedness, far- 
sightedness and astigmatism, and examined for infectious diseases. When examination 
shows that a candidate's eyes are free from disease and chronic inflammation, and 
from defects making the wearing of glasses advisable, or that the faults in vision are 
corrected by glasses or other remedy prescribed by an oculist, he may be credited 5 
points. If the teacher gives examination she must comply with full instructions fur- 
nished by her state board of education or health or by the National Committee on the 
Prevention of Blindness, 130 East 22nd St., New York. The latter organization will 
send instructions free to any teacher applying. 

Ears, 5 points. When a competent examiner finds that a pupil's hearing in each 
ear is normal or within 10% of normal and there is no evidence of disease or inflam- 
mation, the candidate may be credited 5 points. The examination must be conducted 
by a physician or in compliance with full instructions issued by a state board of health 
or education. Such instructions are contained in Health Bulletin No. 2, "The Eyes and 
Ears of School Children," published by the New York State Department of Education, 

Heart, 5 points. When a physician reports after a stethoscopic examination that a 
candidate's heart is in sound condition and that the candidate need exercise no more 
care in participating in athletics than the average pupil of his age, he is credited 5 

Lungs, 5 points. When a physician reports after a stethoscopic examination on the 
bare chest that a candidate's lungs are in perfectly sound condition, and he has a chest 
expansion of at least 2 inches, he is credited 5 points. 

Skin, 5 points. When competent examination shows that the skin is healthy, with- 
out eruption, and that the scalp is free from scales and pediculosis, the candidate is 
credited 5 points. 

Feet, 5 points. If a candidate wears shoes fully 
permitting correct position and shape for his feet, he 
may be credited 5 points. Shoes which bend the big 
toe toward the others or the others toward the big 
toe force incorrect shape. The shoe, like the foot, 
should have a "straight inner edge" (except for the 
instep curve). Only shoes with low heels permit 
correct position, and no shoes with heels more than 
one and one-half inches high can be passed in exam- 
ination for the Round Table. The teacher should 
urge the use of much lower heels. Children candi- 
dates that come to school barefoot part of the time 
must wear their shoes for this examination. If the 
teacher observes that a pupil who passes this test 
subsequently purchases shoes that are incorrect in 
the respects indicated in this paragraph, during the 
period of his candidacy for the Round Table, his 
credit should not be allowed. 

46. Knowledge of First Aid 

The candidate for the Round Table who presents this qualification must have pur- 
sued a course of study in first aid under a teacher and have passed the examination 
entitling the pupil to the Certificate of First Aid issued for schools by the American Red 
Cross. When he has passed the examination he is credited 30 points. The course on 
which the examination is based is especially suited to high schools. The plan of the 
course, in entire harmony with the Modern Health Crusade, is to teach the pupil to do 
by doing. Schools which are not conducting such a course may readily secure the 
Red Cross circular, "First Aid Instruction in Schools," and the textbook for the 
teacher. Application should be made to the local Red Cross Chapter, or directly to 
the American Red Cross, First Aid Division, Washington, D. C. 

47. Swimming and Life-Saving Skill 

The points enumerated below are allowed to Round Table candidates meeting the 
following tests, set by the American Red Cross for Junior Life Saving Crews. 
The tests apply to both boys and girls. 


1. For Beginners. Ability to swim 50 feet, using any stroke they know. 10 points. 

2. For Swimmers. Ability to swim 100 yards, using two or more strokes; to dive 
properly from a take-off; to swim on back 50 feet; and to retrieve objects at 
reasonable depth from the surface. 15 points. 

3. For Life-Savers, Ability to tow persons of one's own \veight for 10 yards by 
the following methods: 

(a) Head carry. 

(b) Cross chest carry. 

(c) Two point carry. 

(d) Tired swimmer's carry. 

Life-savers must be able to illustrate in the water the methods of releasing them- 
selves from people in peril of drowning, if grasped by — 
Front neck-hold, 
Back neck-hold. 

They must be able to make the surface dive and recovery, and are required to dem- 
onstrate both the Schaefer and Sylvester methods of performing artificial respiration, 
although the Schaefer method is the one preferred. 30 points. 

Explanations of unknown terms and methods are given in the Red Cross Textbook 
on First Aid published by P. Blakeston's Son & Company, Philadelphia. 

Round Table candidates must meet these tests to the satisfaction of at least one 
adult known by the teacher tO' be competent to judge. 

The Red Cross provides badges of three grades — for "beginners," "swimmers" and 
"life-savers." Information regarding the required board of examiners, emblems, prizes 
and national trophy is given in pamphlet 1004, free on application to the American 
Red Cross, Washington, D. C. 

48. Scout and Camp Fire Activities 

The training given by the Scout and Camp Fire organizations is included among 
the qualifications for Knights of the Round Table as a valuable aid to physical fitness. 
For becoming a Boy Scout or Girl Scout Tenderfoot, 10 points; Second-Class Scout, 
20 points; First-Class Scout, 30 points. For becoming a Camp Fire Wood Gatherer, 
15 points; Fire Maker, 30 points. In communities where local groups are lacking, ap- 
plication for information should be addressed to Boy Scouts of America, 200 Fifth 
Ave., New York; Girl Scouts, 189 Lexington Ave., New York; Camp Fire Girls, 31 E. 
17th St., New York. 

49. Community Sanitation Work 

In some states sanitation has been given a large place in Modern Health Crusade 
work. Sanitation work furnishes demonstrations especially valuable to high schools 
and junior high schools in connection with civics and courses bearing directly or in- 
directly on health. This branch of Crusade work brings the street cleaning depart- 
ment, health officer and other municipal authorities into touch with the school, brings 
to light ordinances that are inadequate or unenforced, and benefits the whole com- 

As various methods may be followed in sanitation work, and as local conditions 
determine the best, the form of work is not described in this manual. The experience 
of Crusaders in one county is recited to suggest a plan of campaign for other com- 
munities. The high schools of the county, one representing a city and the others rural 
districts, divided the territory into sanitary districts, the whole county being covered. 
The high school or schools located in each district elected a sanitary officer for the 
district, choosing a pupil qualified as worker and leader. Under this captain a lieu- 
tenant was elected by his fellow pupils for each subdistrict, and a corporal for each 
city block, while each pupil was drafted as a private. 

Five objectives were set: that each house be screened against flies; that a covered 
garbage can be used; that all outdoor vaults be darkened so that flies would not enter; 
that manure or other fly-breeding matter be disinfected once a week and removed; and 
that the streets, alleys and premises be made clean and sightly. 

The first work was a survey. The districts were marked on a county map posted 
in the office of the county superintendent of schools. Flat maps outlining all farm or 
town residences were made for each district. Under proper supervision each house- 
holder was visited and apprised of the community plan. Printed slips were used by 
the visitors for checking the conditions found, and the findings were noted by pins on 
the district maps. 

The campaign for improving conditions was announced to cover two weeks after 
the survey. Changes effected were recorded on the second visit and "spotted" on the 
district map. Corresponding pin markings on the large map at the county superinten- 
dent's office recorded the progress of all the district? and stimulated competition be- 


tween districts. So effective was the campaign that only eight householders in a city 
of 35,000 failed to comply with requirements. This work was done entirely by the 
high school and seventh and eighth grade pupils, who conferred as need arose with 
the local Crusade council composed of five adults. 

In the country districts tests were made of the water from every well, the work 
being done at the high school laboratories. Much infection was found; and when the 
users of the water failed to be affected by the data shown, permission was secured to 
put a quart of kerosene in the nearby outdoor toilet. When the strata of the earth ran 
toward the water supply from the vault where the kerosene was placed, the kerosene 
was detected by odor and taste, and the people who boasted of their well water were 
suddenly forced to realize its true condition. The result was that 63 new wells were 
dug in that county, and a material decrease in the recorded number of typhoid cases 

Campaigns against flies and mosquitoes readily enlist school children, when organ- 
ized at all systematically. Competition should be brought into play. Prizes not only 
of material value, but also newspaper commendation, are effective. A first step is to 
teach the children practical points about the insects, such as likely breeding places, 
disinfection to prevent hatching, and the making and placing of traps. 

Playlet "King Good Health Win 

Publications giving all needed information can readily be secured. The National 
Association will give references in addition to those cited in the Bibliography, §64, and 
invites correspondence with Crusade leagues and other groups planning sanitation 

Points towards admission to the Round Table are earned by community sanitation 
work. Two and one-half points are allowed for each hour of actual work up to 16 
hours, under the following conditions. 

1. The work must be in an organized community sanitation campaign under a 
school teacher or other adult posted on sanitation, such as the town health officer, a 
physician or civil engineer. 

2. The pupil workers, numbering at least five, must work as a committee or club 
under a common plan approved in detail by the adult leader. 

3. Each pupil must give the leader a report on his findings and accomplishments, 
and a memorandum giving the dates on which he worked and the number of hours or 
fractions thereof spent in actual sanitation work on each date. 

4. The teacher must approve the report and results of each pupil's work before 
points are allowed him. 

5. The points credited shall be at the rate of 2J/^ per hour. The minimum number 
of points allowed is 5 and the maximum number of points allowed is 40. 


50. Accolade of the Round Table 

It is recommended that pupils qualifying as Knights of the Round Table be for- 
mally invested with title. The following ceremony is suggested. 

(The ceremony is conducted by the principal [Crusade grand master] or other 
school authority, who addresses first the audience and then the candidates, who are 
grouped on one side of the stage.) 

(To audience.) We are happily met together to witness the entrance of valiant 
Knights to the Order of the Round Table. These Modern Health Crusaders, all 
Knights Banneret, have each been proven in ordeals set to test their fitness for this 
highest order. 

When King Arthur formed his Round Table, he drew to it the flower of chivalry, 
"the goodliest company of famous knights whereof the world holds record." Lancelot, 
Galahad, Percival and many other peerless warriors were of this chosen band whose 
victories were blazoned on twelve great windows in Arthur's hall. 

Full many years ago departed Arthur and his company, and his Round Table be- 
came a memory, celebrated in song and story. Now the Round Table is formed again, 
of knights arrayed not in heavy coats of mail, but in the golden armor of health. 

(To candidates.) For the National Legion of Modern Health Crusaders and the 
(name of state) Legion, I now create each prowest Knight assembled here a member 
of the Round Table. That all may know of your deeds, I present each one of you with 
a parchment and a badge. These are the outward tokens. The order itself lives in the 
spirit and intent of every loyal Knight. 

Now, just as truly as in the days of Arthur, you will find that every morning brings 
a noble chance whereby you prove yourself a noble Knight. Yours is the glorious 
privilege to champion the cause of health, and thus to redress human wrongs. So live 
that others, seeing your good deeds, will rally to the standard. 

(Each candidate is called by name and presented with the certificate and badge of the 
Order. Exeunt to martial music.) 

#0^ ^ f% 






5L Entertainments 

A Crusade entertainment is a profitable means of promoting health education. A 
series of subjects recommended for an entertainment each month is given below. 

As a profitable means of promoting health, a Crusade entertainment-meeting should 
be held each month. It may be given by a single class or club or single school, or by 
several jointly, so far as children and their adult supporters can be gathered into one 
meeting. The entertainment for all may be furnished by different schools in turn. The 
hour may be in or after school or in an evening following which children do not have 
to rise early for school. 

Crusade entertainments properly conducted are not "lectures." but meetings made 
interesting to children and adults by presentation of facts with pleasing association or 
with appeal to wonderment, and through action, display, games, playlets, pageants, 
clownery, music, etc. Crusaders should take an active part in the program themselves, 
especially as actors in health playlets. Meetings made occasions to appeal to Cru- 


saders' pride should be announced in newspapers. For means of making meetings 
entertainments, see "Playlets," "Motion Pictures," "Exhibits," and "Songs" below. 

Adult speakers should be given ample notice to prepare talks made graphic with 
models, pictures and lantern slides, and couched in simple language. Most communi- 
ties have a doctor, dentist, nurse or physical director who can with words and apparatus 
make health facts interesting. The school nurse is a logical leader for the meeting. 
If a special talk has not been prepared, a story may be told. For books of stories, see 
§64. Skilled women story-tellers are frequently available, both among and outside the 
teachers. Stories of crusaders and knights and of Arthur's Round Table, applied to 
the quest of health, will inspire children. Calisthenics, exercise, games or folk dances 
may be conducted at every meeting. 

52. Schedule of Meetings* 

September — Stories of the old crusades and of the Modern Health Crusade. First aid 

to the injured. Posture, (The monthly weighing of Crusaders with entry of 

weights on Roll of Health Knighthood, if not done at another time in school, 

should be attended to at the meetings.) 
October — Care of teeth. Toothbrush drill. Care of nose and throat. Organization of 

November — Care of eyes, skin and scalp. Baths. 
December — Tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. How to prevent colds. Christmas 

health seals. 
January — Home and school gymnastics. Folk dances. Organized play in winter. 
February — Fake cures and real medicine. Fresh air, wholesome food, exercise, rest. 

Methods of outdoor sleeping. 
March — Fly, mosquito — and vermin campaigns. Clean-up work. 
April — Nervous system. Influence of mind on health. Cheerfulness, anger, courage, 

May — What and how to eat and drink. Regularity. Weight. Food protection. Clean 

hands. Typhoid fever. 
June — Temperature. Alcohol, tobacco, injurious soft drinks. 
July — Patriotism of health. Marching or military drills. Care of feet. 
August — Outing or picnic. Field athletics and organized play, 

•Presentation of squires' certificates and badges for Knights and Knights Banneret can be included in 
the program for the month in which these titles are attained. 

53. Playlets and Pageants 

Many interesting health playlets and pageants suitable for children are available. 
The National Tuberculosis Association publishes thirteen. These and twelve published 
by other organizations are listed in a descriptive circular, "Plays and Pageantry," sent 
on application. 

"King Good Health Wins" may be presented both as a play and a pageant. "A 
Pageant in the Interest of Good Health," "The Health Champions," "Mr, I. N. 
Different Is Double Crossed" and other playlets provide entertainment of intense in- 
terest to parents and friends of children. A performance combined with the accolade 
is especially effective and justifies atimission charges. 

54. Miniature Theatre 

"Tiny Tim's House," a theatre of cardboard, decorated in brilliant colors and easily 
shipped by parcel post, can be purchased from the National Association for only $2,00, 
delivered. Tiny Tim's House is made in two parts, proscenium and backdrop. The 
complete outfit consists of directions for costuming the actors and setting up the 
theatre, and two copies of the food playlet, "The Champions." Additional drops may 
be purchased for 75c. extra. The actors for this theatre are potatoes and other vege- 
tables, whose odd shapes have unusual possibilities for character expression and whose 
presence conveys lessons in nutrition. Ready-made costumes for the four characters 
of "The Champions" may be purchased for $3.00, postpaid. 

55. Motion Picture Films 

When a motion-picture machine can be procured, the display of one of the health 
films will contribute greatly to the success of a meeting. The National Associaton will 
give inquirers information about films. Several films may be rented at 75c. per day 
each or purchased for $75 and $100. Among them are "The Modern Health Crusade,^^ 
"The Tournament of Youth," "The Kid Comes Through," "Jinks." "Out of the Shadow 
and "The Public Health Twins at Work." "Good Teeth Good Health" is loaned free 
of any charge except transportation. 


56. Exhibits 

A special Modern Health Crusade exhibit, price $9.50, delivered, may be purchased 
of the National Child Welfare Association, 70 Fifth Avenue, New York. It consists of 
twelve panels, about 17 by 28 inches, for wall display, lithographed and colored by 
hand, the illustrations and text being original and effective. This exhibit is also printed 
as an edition for negro children and sold for $9.50. Other series of panels bearing on 
child health are published by the National Child Welfare Association, under the titles, 
"Aids for Nutrition Clinics," "Health Children" (First and Second Series), "Hygiene for 
School Children," "The A-1 American Girl," "The A-1 American Boy" and "The Amer- 
ican Citizen." Teachers will find it helpful to secure (free) the National Welfare Asso- 
ciation Bulletin 33, "Teaching Health Through the Use of Graphic Material." The 
"Child Welfare Handbook." a beautiful 47-page brochure, giving miniature prints of 
many exhibits, may be obtained for 50c. It has chapters on "What Every Community 
Should Know About Its Children" and "How to Arouse Community Interest in Child 

A comprehensive series of posters on school hygiene is furnished by the Com- 
mittee on Health Problems of the National Council of Education,' 525 West 120th 
Street, New York. Fifty-eight charts may be had for $7.00. 

57. Songs 

A number of songs inspired by the Modern Health Crusade are in use. A collec- 
tion of these songs is offered in "The Minstrel," 5c. per copy postpaid. The Crusaders' 
Song, printed herewith, is sung to music composed for it by Claude Warford and also 
to Denza's "Funiculi, Funicula." 

By Emily Nichols Hatch 
Hail! all ye gentle knights and squires and 
Crusaders' band, for health we stand. 
While all around life's battle fiercely rages 
We'll do our part — clean hands and 
Our soldiers bravely there in France were 
Like knights of old, chivalrous, bold. 
Like them we must some wrong each day 
be righting 
With smiles of cheer, and know no fear. 

We'll battle, we'll conquer; disease and 

dirt we'll slay! 
We'll scout them and rout them and drive 

them off each day! 
With hands and bodies clean and hearts 

all brave and bold. 
Prepared our country's flag and honor to 


With souls and bodies growing strong 
and stronger. 
Brave knights we'll be, our land to free 
From curse of dread disease which shall 
no longer 
O'er it prevail. We shall not fail. 
The holy war which we must still be 
Is for good health. 'Tis more than 
The health of mind and body is engaging 
Our efforts true, in all we do. 


By Esther Watson 
(Tune: "Yankee Doodle") 
I washed my hands before each meal. 
To have them clean and nice, 
(Wash hands.) 

I washed my face and neck and ears, 
(Scrub face, neck and ears.) 

My finger-nails cleaned twice. 
(Clean finger-nails.) 

So I am a Health Crusader, 

I'm going fast all day long, sir — 

(Bend both arms up, expanding chest.) 
For I'm going to help my Uncle Sam 

(Point to flag.) 
To make my country strong, sir. 


I put no unclean things in my mouth. 
Pencils, books nor fingers — 

(Lift pencil toward mouth, then put 
down quickly.) 
I wash my teeth at early morn 
And while the evening lingers. 

(Brush teeth.) 

I took ten slow, deep breaths of air 

(Expand chest.) 
I covered any sneezes — 

(Cover mouth with handkerchief.) 
I played outdoors a whole half hour, 
Amid the pleasant breezes, 

(Toss imaginary ball into the air.) 

I was in bed ten hours last night, 

(Close eyes with head on left arm.) 
With windows open wide, 

(Open imaginarj-^ window.) 
Drank four glasses of water today, 

(Drink from imaginary tumbler.) 
No tea nor coffee beside. 

(Put out right hand in refusal.) 

I ate fruits, cereals — not much meat — 
I chewed them slowly and long, 

(Slow chewing motion.) 
Had milk and eggs and such good things. 
As make all children strong. 

(Show biceps of right arm".)' 


I try to sit and stand up straight, 

(Stand very straight.) 
Be helpful, neat and kind, 
I take a full bath twice a week, 

(Splash with imaginary water and rub 
down with imaginary towel.) 
And keep a cheerful mind. 


(Tune: "Round and Round the Mulberry 
This is the way we clean our teeth, 
Clean our teeth, clean our teeth. 
This is the way we clean our teeth, 
Every night and morning. 

Take your brush, go up and down, 
Up and down, up and down, 

58. Poster Contests 

Poster contests are adapted to classes of all grades and have great educational 
value. The younger groups can make picture posters by cutting out pictures illustrat- 
ing the different health principles enumerated in the Crusaders' Code, and mounting 
them on colored cardboard. Advertisements of soaps, toothbrushes, equipment for out- 
door sports, etc., can readily be adapted for health-poster use. 

For the more advanced pupils who are having instruction in drawing, original 
posters can be made under the supervision of the drawing instructor. So far as possible 
it is wise to allow each child to choose his own subject. The Crusaders' Code offers 
many suggestions for the posters. 

Take your brush, go up and down, 
Every night and morning. 

Don't forget both back and front. 
Back and front, back and front, 
Don't forget both back and front, 
Every night and morning. 

If you brush them faithfully. 
Faithfully, faithfully, 
You a knight will surely be. 
Every night and morning. 

This is the way we catch our cough 

Catch our cough, catch our cough 

This is the way we catch our cough 

So early in the morning. 

Diagram for drawing 
Crusaders' cross 

In a county poster contest, prizes may be awarded for the best poster in each town- 
ship or district, and a grand prize for the best poster in the entire county. An ex- 
hibition of the best posters submitted in the contest at the county fair is an incentive to 
all contestants and stimulates interest in the health work being done in the schools. 

59. Health Crusade Clubs 

Children like to belong. Beside general membership in the Modern Health Crusade 
definite membership in a health club gives boys and girls increased zeal and steadfast- 
ness in health work. The formation of a club does not come under the necessary part 
of the Crusade program, but is recommended to the school 

The teacher or principal explains to all the pupils that all who do the Crusade 

chores for a probationary period of five or more weeks will be members of the 

Grade Health Crusade Club or School Health Crusade Club. The plan of or- 
ganization is distinctly democratic, only those pupils who fail to do the health chores 
being excluded from the club. Beside the qualifying pupils and the teacher, the club 
may include "honorary members" elected for" service or for contributions to the trea- 


sury. A fixed minimum, e. g., $5, should be set for contributions or dues from honorary 
members. They may be entitled Honorary Crusaders. 

At a meeting set at the end of the probationary weeks, coming preferably at the 
class session in hygiene or prompting and inspection, the pupils who qualify adopt the 
constitution and elect officers. The chief officers^ are captain (president, mayor, or 
health officer), one or two lieutenants (vice-president), herald (secretary), Crusade 
master (the teacher) and grand master (the principal). Inspectors — health, window 
and thermometer — are also officers, but usually serve for short terms (see § 25). A consti^ 
tution and by-laws, standard for a Health Club, are given on page 47. 

The Crusade master, who may be another adult if the teacher cannot serve, con- 
ducts the organizing meeting and selects nominees for officers and provides a copy of 
the constitution beforehand. 

Each club should proclaim a slogan, like "War Against Disease," "Good Health 
for You and Me," "Strong and Clean, Body and Mind," "Every Health Chore a Good 
Health Habit," "Keep Vigorous to Withstand the Rigorous." 

60. Club Activities 

The first activity of a club is to seek the membership of 100 per cent, of the pupils 
and to promote the members' progress in earning chivalric titles. Group competition 
is an effective principle to follow. The club members should be divided into two 
numerically equal teams. They are determined preferably by classroom rows (entire 
or divided). Another method is for two leaders to choose the teams, making alternate 
choices of members, as is done for impromptu baseball teams. The leaders of the two 
teams should be the lieutenant and herald of the club. The class may, however, be 
divided into teams on beginning to do health chores, before officers have been elected 
or the club organized. Health inspectors appointed by the teacher serve then as leaders 
until the club is organized. 

The teams compete to earn the most Crusade credits in a given period of time 
(see explanation of credits under "Tournaments," § 29). Simultaneously, a competition 
may be carried on between two or more clubs, representing as many classes or schools. 
For an idea of the interest to be aroused, read Ellis Parker Butler's story, "A Knight 
Without Reproach." (Mailed by the National Association on receipt of 3c. postage.) 

The best procedure is to conduct daily prompting and hygienic inspection, as de- 
scribed above, with officers or team leaders assisting the teacher. When summoned 
by the teacher the captain comes forward and asks the twelve questions. The herald 
and lieutenant have prompter and inspection blanks on which the names of the pupils 
of their respective teams are written, and make note of those who do not claim by 
uplifted hand to have done and recorded the chores. Inspection is then made, prefer- 
ably by the teacher. It may be made by the herald and lieutenant. To avoid risk of 
partiality toward members of their own teams, they may each be assigned as inspector 
of the other's team, while the teacher is arbiter. An informal competition from week 
to week may be based on the records on the inspection blanks. On Monday of each 
week the captain should announce both the number of credits earned (one for each 
pupil in the team who did 54 or more chores for the preceding week) and the total 
number of chores done. 

Other activities for a club are the entertainments and dramatic productions (see 
§§ 51-58), and participation in athletics and in training for the Round Table (see 
§§ 37-50). Clubs may challenge others to qualify the most members for seats at the 
Round Table. 

61. Community Work 

A club may make itself useful to the town in many ways. It may work for a sani- 
tary drinking fountain in the school, a playground, fresh-air schoolrooms, ventilation 
for every room, clean streets, clean lavatories, etc. It may draw up a petition and 
agitate for physical examinations in schools, backed with nursing service. It may enter 
upon anti-fly and vermin campaigns, and aid in a town clean-up. (See "Community 
Sanitation Work," § 49.) It may appeal for the enforcement of laws against spitting 
and the sale of tobacco and impure candy to children. Committees may be appointed 
to report or to take action on exposed breeding places for flies and mosquitoes, on 
improvement of school premises, on sick children or on any of the various lines of 
work suggested in this manual. 


62. Handbook for Teaching Hygiene 

A guide for teaching hygiene in all elementary grades is now being prepared by 
the National Tuberculosis Association with the assistance of educators, school admin- 
istrators and hygienists. It is a comprehensive and graded course in hygiene based 
on the Crusade system. Its keynote is the practice of hygiene. 


The guide presents an elastic outline for lessons from month to month during the 
school year. The lessons are planned to be given at different times in the regular sub- 
jects of the school curriculum. It furnishes suggestive material, carefully selected, on 
which the teacher may base her talks to pupils and v^ith which instruction from what- 
ever text-book is used may be enriched. It gives, in complete form as well as by ref- 
erences, stories, quotations, games and projects. Both a direct and a cross index is 
provided. The guide is also designed to serve state boards of education and may be 
published in state editions. 

63. Moral Effect of the Crusade 

The Crusade system was devised in compliance with ethical, mental and physical 
laws. The teacher who conducts the general course of Crusade chores, with the re- 
quired recording, will find that the pupils receive a distinct moral benefit. 

The chores give teachers an exceptionally good opportunity to inculcate truthful- 
ness. The daily performance, recording and certifying of chores afford the needed 
drill. The rewards of the Crusade furnish the temptation to falsify that is necessary 
to cultivate truthfulness. Character in all of its positive virtues is acquired by facing 
temptation, not by keeping aloof from temptation. The character of the always shel- 
tered child is blank and he is prone to go to the bad rapidly when the shelter is 

The wise teacher or parent first cultivates the child's sense of honor; second, lets 
him meet temptation; and, third, makes a follow-up. The Crusade system applies 
these three influences. The child is placed on his honor — he certifies his chore record 
"on his honor." He has a systematic drill every day in choosing between right and 
wrong statements. Each decision for right builds truthfulness; each decision for 
wrong builds falsity. The follow-up here is multiple. The parent must pass on the 
child's truthfulness and sign the certification. The teacher must be satisfied that the 
child's cleanliness and deportment correspond with his statement of chores. Finally, 
his schoolmates are quick to point out false claims. 

Additional influences for deciding for truth are found in the chores themselves, 
their admonitions and their effect. The call to helpfulness makes for social responsi- 
bility and against lying. Regularity in performance of duty discourages irregularity in 
statement. Improved health makes for straightforwardness. Cleanliness promotes 

Episode in Crusade Pageant by Atlantic City School. Children 

self-respect. "Clean thoughts and words accompany clean habits." In the words of 
a prominent educator, "There has developed in the minds of a number of active health 
workers a conviction that health education, viewed broadly, is not only an essential 
part of, but probably the most valuable vehicle for normal training." 

While the wise want their children to face temptation, they are careful that the 
temptation be not too strong. The Crusade guards against this. If a 100 per cent, 
chore performance were required, and the reward a $10 gold piece or a prize for only 
one pupil the temptation might well be too strong. But with only 75 per cent, per- 
formance required, rewards very inexpensive, and success democratically within reach 

of every boy and girl, the temptation for the majority of children is less strong thail 
the influence for truthfulness. 

In a group of many children it will, however, be surprising to find none who falsify 
their chore records. For those who do, the chores are an occasion for lying. This 
is different from teaching to lie. School examinations are the occasion of much cheat- 
ing but do not teach dishonesty. Lying and cheating are more correctly attributed to 
lack of teaching truthfulness at home than to the Crusade and to school examinations. 

A famous clergyman recently said that he never knew a boy or girl who would 
not lie at some age in childhood. "The child's instinctive brute sense of self-preserva- 
tion manifests itself in a tendency to grab, to insist on the biggest piece, to steal and 
to lie. The fact is that the baby starts near brutehood, and we must expect him to go 
a long way in moral growth, as well as in physical and mental, before he becomes our 
A-1 citizen. It is first nature for the child to lie. Society must teach him to be truth- 

For the younger children the mixture of imagination and memory seems normal. 
Their falsifying should usually not be condemned as lying, with its connotation of 
intent to deceive. In recognition of their unreliability in statement, the Crusade course 
recommended for children in the first two grades does not hold out the chivalric re- 
wards. When the use of printed chore records and chivalric titles is begun parents and 
teachers will find the Crusade one of the best means conceivable for imparting honesty 
to their children. 

64. Bibliography 

A — Stories Recommended for Kindergarten and First Two Primary Grades 

Book Author 

All through the day, the Mother Goose 

Way Broadhurst 

Child Health Alphabet 
Cho-Cho and the Health Fairy (good 

for nutrition work) 
Every Child's Book 

Hiawatha Primer Holbrook 

Jack O'Health and Peg O'Joy Herben 

Keep Well Stories for Little Folk Jones 

Metropolitan Mother Goose 

Pig Brother Richards 

Rhymes of Cho-Cho's Grandma 
Story of Rosy Cheeks and Strong 

Heart (good for nutrition work) 
The Most Wonderful House in the 

World Haviland 

The Playhouse Haviland 


J. B. Lippincott Co. 
Child Health Organization 

Child Health Organization 
Child Health Organization 
Houghton, Mifflin Co. 
Chas. Scribner's Sons 
J. B. Lippincott Co. 
Metropolitan Life Ins. Co. 
Little, Brown & Co. 
Child Health Organization 

Child Health Organization 

J. B. Lippincott Co. 
J. B. Lippincott Co. 

B— Stories of King Arthur and His Knights Recommended for Third Through 

Eighth Grades 

Gentle, Perfect Knight 

King Arthur and His Knights 

Page, Esquire and Knight 

Seven Champions of Christendom 

Stories from the Crusades 

Story of King Arthur and His Knights 

Storv of the Champions of the Round 

Stories of the King 
Story of the Middle Ages 
When Knights Were Bold 








World Book Co. 

Rand-McNally Co. 

Ginn & Co. 

Wells Gardner 

E. P. Button & Co. 

Chas. Scribner's Sons 

Chas. Scribner's Sons 
American Book Co. 
Scott Foresman 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 

C — Plays and Songs 

For list of 25 plays and pageants, apply to the National Tuberculosis Association, 
370 Seventh Avenue New York, for circular, "Plays and Pageantry." 

The Minstrel 
The Song Leaflet 
The Songster 


5c. each 
55c. per 100 
3c. each 


N. J. Tuberculosis League 
Iowa Tuberculosis Association 
Ohio Public Health Ass'n 

D — Physical Exercises 

Games for Playground, Home, School 

and Gymnasium Bancroft 

Play and Recreation for the Open 

Country Curtis 

Rhythmic Action, Plays and Dances Moses 

School Room Games Boyd 

Social Plays, Games, Marches, Old 
Folk Dances and Rhythmic Move- 

E — Health Primers 

MacMillan Co. 

Amer. Physical Educa. Ass'n 
Thos. Charles Company 
Chicago School of Civics, 
Recreation Dept. 

Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 

A Child's Book of the Teeth 
Teeth, Tonsils, and Adenoids 

(See also books listed in § 6) 

World Book Co. 
Metropolitan Life Ins. Co. 

F — Books and Pamphlets on Nutrition 

Diet for the School Child 

Health Education and the Nutrition Hunt, Johnson & 

Health Index 

Instructions to Teachers and Nutrition 

Lunch Hour at School 

Methods and Standards in the Weigh- 
ing and Measuring of Children 

Nutrition and Growth of Children 
Nutrition Clinics, Classes, Their Organ- 
ization and Conduct 
Nutrition Clinics for Delicate Children 
The Nutrition Class 

G — Other Books and Pamphlets 

Care of the Teeth 

Children's Teeth — A Community Re- 

Every Day Mouth Hygiene 

Forty Notifiable Diseases 

Health Education 

Health Education in Rural Schools 

Health Essentials for Rural School 

Health Work in the Schools 

Hygiene of the School Child 

School Hygiene 

Suggestions for Program for Health 

Teaching in Elementary Grades 
Teaching of Hygiene in the Grades 

Eyesight of School Children 
Foot and Shoe Charts 
Physiology, Hygiene and Sanitation 

Boys and Girls of Garden City 
Civics and Health 
First Aid 

Pamphlets on Fly Campaigns 
Town and City 

Transmission of Disease by Flies 
Water Supply, Plumbing and Sewage 

Disposal for Country Homes, Bull. 

No. 57 


U. S. Bureau of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

E. P. Dutton Co. 
Layton, Dr. Edwin A., Director 
of Health, Tacoma, Wash. 

National Tuberculosis Ass'n 
U. S. Bureau of Education, 

Washington, D. C. 
Elizabeth McCormick Memorial 

Fund, 848 N. Dearborn St., 

Chicago, 111. 
Appleton and Co. 

44 Dwight St., Boston 
44 Dwight St., Boston 
Child Health Organization 

on Hygiene, Physiology and Sanitation 





Hoag & Ter- 





Metropolitan Life Ins. Co. 

U. S. Public Health Service 
W. B. Saunders Co. 
World Book Co. 
Lyons & Carnahan 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 

American Medical Ass'n 

Houghton Mifflin Co. 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 
F. A. Stokes Co. 

U. S. Bureau of Education 
Houghton Mifflin Co. 

U. S. Bureau of Education 
Woman's Press, N. Y. City 
Ginn & Co. 

Dawson Ginn & Co. 

Allen Ginn & Co. 

Am. Red Cross P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 

International Harvester Co. 
Jewett Ginn & Co. 

U. S. Public Health Service 

U. S. Dept. of Agriculture 

(See also books listed in §6) 

Constitution and By-Laws for a Health Crusade Club 

The following constitution and by-laws are standard for a Health Club: 


Article I — Name 
The name of this club of Modern Health Crusaders shall be 

Article H — Objects 
The objects of the club shall be the formation of good health habits by the mem- 
bers; the spread of knowledge concerning the prevention of disease; participation in 
athletics; cooperation with teachers, principal, school nurse and janitor in the interest 
of health; and the improvement of sanitary conditions in school, homes, yards and 
streets. It shall be the aim of each member to stand for clean thought, clean speech, 
clean sports, and for loyalty to the club, school and community. 

Article HI — Government 

The general plans and program of the club shall be determined by its members and 
under the advice of the Crusade master. The Crusade master is the teacher or adult 
appointed. The execution of the program shall be under the direction of the Execu- 
tive Committee, with whom shall rest the executive management of the club. Should 
there be more than one club in this city (town), the executive committees of all clubs 
shall be a central committee of directors with power to coordinate the activities of the 
several clubs. The members of this central committee shall elect a chairman from 
their number. 

The constitution and by-laws may be amended at any meeting of the club upon 
two-thirds vote, provided that notice of such proposed amendment shall have been 
given to each member at least ten days before the meeting. 


Number 1 — Membership 

The members of the club shall be pupils of this school (class) who have met the re- 
quirements for enrollment as Modern Health Crusaders, Membership in this club is 
for the term covered by the member's certificate of enrollment as a Modern Health 

All Modern Health Crusaders, members of this club, shall have equal votes in meet- 
ings of the club, regardless of their rank. The quorum required for transaction of 
business at a meeting of the club is five members. The total membership must be at 
least seven. 

The club may elect such adult honorary members as it chooses, for services or on 

payment of dues of not less than $ Honorary members may participate in the 

discussions of the club, but shall have no vote. 

Number 2 — Officers 

The officers of the club elected from the members shall be Captain (president), 
Lieutenant (vice-president) and Herald (secretary). To retain office each of these 
officers must do 75 per cent, of the health chores per week during at least three-fourths 
of the weeks of his term. 

The term of office for Captain, Lieutenant and Herald shall be three months (or a 
school term). 

Health inspectors and similar officers may be appointed by the Crusade master or 
elected from the members for specified periods of time. 

Number 3 — Executive Committee 

The elected officers of the club and the Crusade master shall be the Executive 

Number 4 — Meetings 

The club shall hold meetings monthly between the first and tenth days. Additional 

meetings may be held. Members failing to attend at least meetings within each 

four months of their membership shall be subject to expulsion and forfeiture of titles 
and badges. 

The election of officers shall occur at meetings at intervals of three months. In 
event of a vacancy the Executive Committee may call a special meeting to elect a suc- 
cessor for the unfilled term of office. 

Procedure for Meetings 
The following form of parliamentary procedure may be used: call to order; roll 
call; signing of constitution by new members; reading minutes of last meeting; reports 
of committees; new business; adjournment. Crusaders should be called on to vote 
frequently and take an active part. Reports of committees should be acted on in a 
businesslike way. 


^B BC^^? 

I believe in my country, and in the good citizenship of its people. 

I believe that to support my country I must have Health, Strength and Hoi 

I love my country's Flag. To me its bright red stands for bright red blood, 
means energy and power, cheerfulness and hope, human kindness and the joy of 
Its pure white stands for clean bodies which house clean minds. Its blue stan^ 
the clear sky, the sunshine, fresh air, play and exercise. 

As an American I will be a faithful soldier in the children's army of peac| 
Modern Health Crusade. 

State Distributors for the Modern Health Crusade 

Alabama Tuberculosis Ass'n, 308 N. 21st St., Birmingham, Ala. 
Arizona Anti-Tuberculosis Ass'n, 300 E. Adams St., Phoenix, Ariz. 
Arkansas Public Health Ass'n, Donaghey Bldg., Little Rock, Ark. 
California Tuberculosis Ass'n, Griffith-McKenzie Bldg., Fresno, Cal. 
Colorado Tuberculosis Ass'n, Barth Bldg., Denver, Colo. 
Conn. State Tuberculosis Commission, State Capitol, Hartford, Conn. 
Delaware Anti-Tuberculosis Society, 1305 W. 13th St., Wilmington, Del. 
District of Columbia Tuberculosis Ass'n, 923 H St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 
Florida Public Health Ass'n, Dyal-Upchurch Bldg., Jacksonville, Fla. 
Georgia Tuberculosis Ass'n, Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 
Idaho Anti-Tuberculosis Ass'n, National Bank Bldg., Boise, Idaho. 
Illinois Tuberculosis Ass'n, 516 E. Monroe St., Springfield, 111. 

(Cook County) Chicago Tuberculosis Institute, 8 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, 
Indiana Tuberculosis Ass'n, 1134 Pythian Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 
Iowa Tuberculosis Ass'n, Century Bldg., Des Moines, Iowa. 
Kansas State Tuberculosis Ass'n, 106 W. 9th St., Topeka, Kansas. 
Kentucky Tuberculosis Ass'n, 532 W. Main St., Louisville, Ky. 
Louisiana Anti-Tuberculosis League, 730 Common St., New Orleans, La. 
Maine Public Health Ass'n, 318 Water St., Augusta, Maine. 
Maryland Tuberculosis Ass'n, 704 N. Howard St., Baltimore, Md. 
Massachusetts Tuberculosis League, Little Bldg., Boston, Mass. 
Michigan Anti-Tuberculosis Ass'n, 209 Shiawassee St., Lansing, Mich. 
Minnesota Public Health Ass'n, 300 Shubert Bldg., St. Paul, Minn. 
Mississippi Tuberculosis Ass'n, Merchants Bank Bldg., Jackson, Miss. 
Missouri Tuberculosis Ass'n, Pontiac Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 
Montana Tuberculosis Ass'n, State Capitol, Helena, Mont. 
Nebraska Tuberculosis Ass'n, Brandeis Theatre Bldg., Omaha, Neb. 
Nevada Public Health Ass'n, Reno, Nev. 

New Hampshire Tuberculosis Ass'n, City Mission Bldg., Manchester, N. H. 
New Jersey Tuberculosis League, 45 Clinton St., Newark, N. J. 
New Mexico Public Health Ass'n, Albuquerque, N. M. 
(N. Y.) State Charities Aid Ass'n, 105 E. 22nd St., New York City. 

(New York City) New York Tuberculosis Ass'n, 10 E. 39th St., New York 

Brooklyn Bureau of Charities, 69 Schermerhorn St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
North Carolina Tuberculosis Ass'n, Sanatorium, N. C. 
North Dakota Tuberculosis Ass'n, Tribune Bldg., Bismarck, N. D. 
Ohio Public Health Ass'n, 83 S. 4th St., Columbus, Ohio. 
Oklahoma Public Health Ass'n, Oklahoman Bldg., Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Oregon Tuberculosis Ass'n, Selling Bldg., Portland, Ore. 
Pennsylvania Tuberculosis Society, 10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(Pittsburgh) Tuberculosis League, 2851 Bedford Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Philippine Islands Anti-Tuberculosis Society, P. O. Box 281, Manila, P. I. 
Rhode Island Tuberculosis Ass'n, 109 Washington St., Providence, R. I. 
South Carolina Tuberculosis Ass'n, Liberty Bank Bldg., Columbia, S. C. 
South Dakota Public Health Ass'n, Huron, S. D. 
Tennessee Anti-Tuberculosis Ass'n, 506 Cedar St., Nashville, Tenn. 
Texas Public Health Ass'n, Littlefield Bldg., Austin, Texas. 
Utah Public Health Ass'n, State Capitol Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah. 
Vermont Tuberculosis Ass'n, 139 Church St., Burlington, Vt. 
Virginia Tuberculosis Ass'n, Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Richmond, Va. 
Washington Tuberculosis Ass'n, Thompson Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 
West Virginia Tuberculosis Ass'n, Davidson Bldg., Charleston, W. Va. 
Wisconsin Anti-Tuberculosis Ass'n. 558 Jefferson St., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Wyoming Public Health Ass'n, Citizens National Bank Bldg., Cheyenne, Wyo.